Glossary

(The) Web The World Wide Web or WWW consists of graphic and text documents published on the Internet that are interconnected through clickable "hypertext" links.
+Media Graph 360 This Ipsos MediaCT proprietary tool identifies and quantifies the role of each communication vehicle and can demonstrate how different platforms add, individually or in combination, to intention to purchase/ intention to use a particular service.
12 Certificate No longer exists for cinema but does apply for video & DVD.
12A Certificate Children under the age of 12 will be able to see a '12A' film at the cinema if they are accompanied by a person of 18 years or over. The adult must watch the film with the child or children and not just pay for the ticket.
15 Certificate Passed only for persons of fifteen years and older.
18 Certificate Passed only for persons of eighteen years and older.
3D TV A television set that employs techniques of 3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or 2D-plus-depth, and a 3D display - a special viewing device to project a television program into a realistic three-dimensional field.
3G (of telephone technology) third-generation.
4G (of telephone technology) fourth-generation.
4oD Video on-demand brand operated by UK broadcaster Channel 4. It is available as a downloadable PC-based application, or as a video on-demand channel on Virgin Media, BT Vision and Tiscali TV. The PC version of 4oD is available to download via the Channel 4 website.
A/B copy Facility offered by certain national newspapers whereby different advertisements are printed in alternate issues of the paper. Often used to test the effectiveness of different creative approaches, egs couponed versus non-couponed, different headlines, etc.Typically incurs a 10% rate premium.
AA Advertising Association - Umbrella group representing agencies, advertisers and the media. It provides information including statistics and lobbies on major advertising issues. Its aim is to promote and protect the advertising business.
AB High status individuals.
AB Deadlines Advanced Booking deadlines: the deadline by which a TV campaign must be booked ahead of transmission. The deadline varies from broadcaster to broadcaster, though seven weeks is usually the minimum.
Abandon When a user does not complete a transaction.
ABC Audit Bureau Of Circulation - An independent body supported by advertisers and agencies, which issues audited circulation figures for member publications.
ABCe Data Audit Bureau of Circulation audited counts of online website traffic
Above the Fold An ad viewable as soon as a web pages loads, that the visitor can see without a need for scrolling.
Above the Line Forms of marketing that involve mass-market advertising, e.g. using TV, Press, Radio and Posters
Access Channel A channel which a cable operator makes available to community groups, local charities and individuals. Facilities are usually made available at cost, or no charge.
Access Panels Access panels are made up of a large number of households who have agreed to take part in research. Online access panels have now largely superseded more traditional mail panels.
Acorn A Classification of Residential Neighbourhoods. Using published census statistics, it classifies consumers according to the type of residential area in which they live. There are 38 different neighbourhood types, which take into account 40 variables including demographic, housing and employment characteristics. The 38 types are themselves aggregated into 11 neighbourhood groups. Available on the TGI and via CACI.
ACR Achromatic colour removal - This is a recent development of under-colour removal. In conventional reproduction, a grey component is formed when a hue containing a mixture of all three colour primaries is printed on paper. This inherent three-colour grey component is replaced with a corresponding amount of black. This should result in stability during the run, reduced wastage and thus savings, although the technique has still to be proven.
Activator Motor & feedback system to drive a motorised multi-satellite antenna.
Active Reach The number of unique persons visiting a website and/or using an application one or more times, expressed as a percentage of the total current internet population for specified reporting period.
Actively Purchased Circulation A term used broadly to describe those copies purchased by an individual at a minimum price. The Actively Purchased figure is the sum of the copies claimed as Newstrade and Single Copy Sales and Single Copy Subscriptions categories.
Ad (Internet) This can be a banner, button, pop-up etc.
Ad Blocker Software on a user's browser which prevents ads being displayed.
Ad Click A Click on an Ad Impression served in the period being measured.
Ad Click Arrival A User arriving at a site as a direct result of having clicked on an ad (made an impression) served on behalf of that site (made an Ad Click).
Ad Click Rate The percentage of Internet users that, after seeing an advertisement, click onto it. This also know as clickthrough
Ad Impression The number of ad banners served in the period being measured.
Ad Impression Arrival A User arriving at a site having been exposed to an ad served on behalf of that site.
Ad Serving Refers to the mechanisms developed to facilitate ad delivery on the World Wide Web or Internet.
Ad Unique Browser The total number of unique combinations of a valid identifier contributing to the Ad Impressions served. Clients may use (i) IP+UserAgent, (ii) Cookie andor (iii) Registration ID.
Ad Unique User A unique device (e.g. a computer, PDA or mobile phone) that has made a request for an Ad Impression served in the period being measured.
Ad Unit Any defined advertising vehicle that can appear in an ad space inside of an application. For example for the purposes of promoting a commercial brand, product or service.
Ad View An ad view or impression is a single ad that appears (usually in full view without scrolling) on a webpage when the page arrives at the viewer's display. A webpage may offer space for a number of ad views. In general the term impression is more commonly used.
Address Either the address of a user of a system, as in e-mail address (required so the message can be sent directed to a particular person) or the address of a site on the Internet.
Addressable Advertising Addressable or Targetted Advertising is a type of advertising whereby advertisements are placed so as to reach consumers based on various traits such as demographics, purchase history, or observed behavior.
Addressibilty The facility by which the subscriber's home equipment may be controlled remotely by the cable operator in order to allow disconnection, the provision of pay-per-view, or changes in the level of service.
Adfast AdFast provides a managed system for the delivery of artwork to newspaper and magazine titles published in the UK
Adjustables ‘Adjustables’ are an online TV ad format technology which enables ads to float inside an online video. In most cases advertisers insert a brand logo into the video playback. The logo can be clicked on and links through to an external advertiser site.
ADM Admissions Base
ADS Artwork Delivery System
Adshel High quality, perspex covered, 4 sheet poster sites situated in bus shelters. Around 60% are illuminated.
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) - A technology that transforms a normal copper telephone line into a high-speed digital line. This technology gives you always-on access to telephone services and the Internet at the same time.
Adspeak An expression used for jargon used in the advertising trade.
Adspend Shortened version of 'advertising expenditure'. Can be used in connection with expenditure by one, many or all advertisers. Has technical overtones when used in advertising research, eg tracking studies.
Adult Probability For a given publication, reading probabilities are calculated for people falling within each claimed reading frequency group.
Adults In British media measurement surveys, adults are usually defined as persons aged 15
Adults Individuals aged 16 or over are classified as Adults within the BARB service
Advan Originally the brand and product name of a company specialising in providing mobile poster sites, ie poster panels affixed to vans, which are driven and displayed as required by advertisers who book space on them. The expression has taken on a more generic meaning (cf. biro) to describe any such mobile poster facility.
Advergame Advergaming is the practice of using video games to advertise a product, organization or viewpoint. The term "advergames" was coined in January 2000 by Anthony Giallourakis who purchased the domain names Advergames.com along with Adverplay.com. (Wikipedi
Advertainment Advertainment As live' advertising whereby graphic overlay technology is used to update a commercial message throughout a programme or a series of live interactive promotions are run where viewers can participate
Advertiser Also called Merchant, Retailer, Eretailer, or Online Retailer. Any website that sells a product or service, accepts payments, and fulfills orders. An advertiser places ads and links to their products and services on other websites (publishers) and pays t
Advertising Artwork There are a small, but increasing number, of artwork formats. GIF and JPEG are the two most popular. New formats like Java may not yet be compatible with some of the systems publishers use to deliver adverts.
Advertising Targeting (Internet) The web allows adverts to be targeted primarily in three ways. 1 By web publication - which allows advertisers to target campaigns based on the simple level of the known demographics of a publication. 2 The choice of content within a web publication. This is particularly important in large online publications such as Electronic Telegraph, which may contain pockets of content targeted at certain groups - for example medical news pages being read by doctors and consumers interested in health issues. 3 Dynamically targeted adverts which deliver different adverts to different groups of readers while they are reading the same page. New software which is being adopted in 1997 by some of the main UK new media publishers is opening up the direct marketing potential of the web. There are two types of dynamic targeting. The first, and simplest, allows adverts to be targeted from information which is carried to the website by the users browser. Typically this will include the type of browser and computer, a generalised statement of what country they are reading from (unfortunately this is based on domain names and often fails) and information about which websites they have visited. The second method is only open to sites like the Telegraphs Electronic Telegraph which have a registered base of users for which they know certain characteristics. In theory an advert could be targeted based on any of the data captured in the questionnaire such as age, gender, occupation.
Advertising Value Equivalent The cost of the ad space an article occupies.
Advertising:editorial ratio (ad:ed ratio) The ratio of advertising to editorial pages in a print medium, eg 60:40 would indicate 60 per cent of all pages are advertising.
Advertorial Hybrid advertisement feature in which advertising and editorial material are combined to mimic a medium's editorial style. Advertorials may be produced either by the publication or by the advertiser, but will normally come under close scrutiny by the medium in question to ensure that its editorial control and/or integrity is not being compromised.
AF Abbreviation of Average Frequency.
Affiliate Marketing An affiliate (a web site owner or publisher), displays an advertisement (such as a banner or link) on its site for a merchant (the brand or advertiser). If a consumer visiting the affiliate's site clicks on this advertisement and goes onto perform a specified action (usually a purchase) on an advertisers site then the affiliate receives a commission.
AFP Advertiser Funded Programming: TV programmes that are funded by an advertiser rather than by a broadcaster.
AGB AGB Nielsen Media Research, wholly owned by Nielsen Media Research as at Nov 2008.
AGB National Weather Model A model designed by AGB to explain the effect of the weather on viewing levels.
Agency Commission This is the discount given by the publisher to recognised advertising agencies, expressed as a percentage.
Agency Trading Desk A dynamic way to purchase audiences, allowing media to be purchased in real time rather than from pre-procured inventory.
AGP see: Audience Guarantee Plan
AIDA Attention, Interest, Desire, Action
Aided Recall Where the respondent's memory is prompted via a visual aid (eg lists of programmes in TV audience research).
AIR Abbreviation of Average Issue Readership.
Ajax Ajax (Asynchronous Javascript and Xml) is a group of inter-related web techniques used for creating interactive web applications
AJAX Impression An HTML page that AJAX content is embedded into.
Alcohol Advertising Alcohol Advertising has been regulated successfully and responsibly by the CAA for the past eight years. Alcohol may be advertised under the following conditions: no more than 40% of commercial minutage is made available to alcohol advertiser; Alcohol commercials can only be shown where the audience profile will be 75% aged 18 or over. These films are called 'non proscribed'.
Algorithm The set of rules a search engine may use to determine the relevance of a web page (and therefore ranking) in its organic search results. See also organic search results and Search Engine Optimisation
AM Amplitude Modulation. The waveband on which most 'Gold' stations broadcast. Also known as Medium.
Ambient Media A catch-all phrase used to describe all 'out-of-home' advertising that does not fit within established media definitions.
Ambush marketing Sponsorship tactic in which a company or companies which is/are not sponsors of a sponsored event attempt to capitalise on it via actions which suggest that they are sponsors of it.
AMP Audience Measurement for Publishers- Audience measurement service (supersedes NRS)
Analogue Television platform using analogue signal wavelengths
Analysis Sample Those respondents identified as being eligible to be interviewed or questioned for a survey.
Android An operating system based on the Linux kernel, and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers
Animated Gif These are frequently used on the Internet to draw attention to a Web page.
Antenna Any device to pick up and deliver satellite microwave signals to the receiver.
AOP Association of Online Publishers
AOV Average order value
APA Association Of Publishing Agencies
Application Service Provider (ASP) An online network that is accessible through the Internet instead of through the installation of software. It is quickly integrated with other websites and the services are easily implemented and scalable.
Appreciation Data Data which shows viewers' or listeners' reactions to the programmes they have watched or listened to.
Appreciation Index An appreciation index is a measure of enjoyment used to evaluate TV and radio programmes.
Apps Apps is an abbreviation for application. An app is a piece of software, which can run on the Internet, on a computer, or on a phone or other electronic device, including TVs.
APS UKOM APS is a media industry measurement of UK consumers’ online activity, specified by UKOM Ltd and delivered by Nielsen
AR Augmented reality
Areas BARB divides the UK into ITV, Sky digital reception areas and BBC editorial regions. Audiences are currently reported for 13 ITV areas and 14 BBC regions (see also Macro Region).
Arts Screen Buying Route Advertising to a particularly discerning upmarket audience in specialised art houses around the country.
Artwork There are a small, but increasing number, of artwork formats. GIF and JPEG are the two most popular. New formats like Java may not yet be compatible with some of the systems publishers use to deliver adverts. There are not yet and globally allied standards to web advertising sizes. Typical banner measurements may be 30 pixels deep by 560 pixels wide.
ASA Advertising Standards Authority
ASCII Abbreviation of American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Ascription The systematic adjustment of figures in analysis to levels deemed to be more appropriate for the purposes of the survey than those obtained by the standard interviewing methods. Can be used to estimate missing data values.
Aspect In outdoor research, the consideration of a position of a poster panel in relation to the road - angled, parallel or head on
Aspect ratio The ratio of television picture width to height. In NTSC and PAL video, the present standard is 4:3. In widescreen video, it is typically 16:9, however, 14:9 has been used as a transition.
Astra The satellite system specifically designed to broadcast television and radio programmes across Europe.
ASTRA Panel A selection of cable and satellite homes used to acquire audience viewing data.
Astra Population The population on which Astra Satellite Panel reports are based, this is all individuals aged 4 and over in UK private households able to receive broadcasts from at least one channel other than those defined as terrestrial channels. Such households are referred to as "Non Terrestrial Households".
Astra Viewing Astra Viewing is viewing to over 40 specified multi channels. These include the SKY branded channels (Sky One, Sky Movies, Sky Sports etc) as well as channels like Bravo, Discovery, Disney Channel, Eurosport, MTV, Nickelodeon, Paramount, Cartoon Network, UK Gold, UK Living, VH-1 etc.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line see ADSL
ATD Agency Trading Desk - a dynamic way to purchase audiences, allowing media to be purchased in real time rather than from pre-procured inventory.
ATM Abbreviation of Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A digital technology used for the high-speed transmission of data over a standard telephone line.
Attention Value Likelihood of an advertisement being noticed. The amount of attention paid to a TV set during a commercial break.
Attitude Research Qualitative or Quantitative Research that examines the values, perceptions, motivations or attitudes of respondents and their opinions about products, companies, media, their lifestyle, and so on.
Audience The population or target group: a) reading a publication or a group of publications b) listening to a radio programme/station or a selection of radio programmes/stations. C) viewing a television programme/channel or a selection of television programmes/channels. D) seeing a poster or poster campaign. E) exposed to an advertisement or advertisement/ commercial or advertising campaign.
Audience Categories The classification of the viewing audience. The main categories are Individuals ( the total audience), Adults, Men, Women, Children and Housewives. Children are those aged between 4 and 15, Adults, Men and Women are those aged 16 or over. Viewing for children aged between 0 and 3 is not recorded.
Audience Category An audience category is a classification of the viewing audience into a specific group. The following audiences are sometimes referred to as main categories - Homes, Individuals, Adults, Men, Women, Children and Housewives. Sub-categories are more detailed breakdowns of the main categories - by age groups, social grades etc
Audience Composition The profile or number of different population sub-groups that comprise the audience to a given medium/media group.
Audience Factor In TV planning in the UK, a factor based on the number of commercial TV adults, housewives etc. per commercial TV home is applied to estimates of net commercial TV homes to achieve an estimate of audience when only homes data are available.
Audience Guarantee Plan (AGP) Buying Route (Cinema) As the name suggests, an AGP offers advertisers a guaranteed level of admissions. The cost of a campaign is based upon a fixed cost per thousand with a seasonally adjusted weekly admissions base. It is the most cost-effective way of achieving rapid cover build of the core cinema audience. AGP advertisers are ensured exhibition across a wide cross-section of films, including the major releases, with a commercial suitable for universal, or U Certificate exhibition. Campaign Admission guarantees are calculated at the time of booking and are monitored using EDI admissions data. Although the AGP is not film selective, admissions generated by children's and Disney films maybe excluded by overall guarantee (up to a maximum of 10% of total admissions) in order to maximise the all adult profile. AGPs are only available on the basis of a minimum exhibition of four weeks.
Audience Profile (Audience Composition) The audience profile shows how a main audience category is divided into its subcategories (such as age, social grade or sex) in percentage terms. For example, if a programme achieves an Adult AB profile of 10%, this means that 10% of adult viewers were AB, while the other 90% were C1/C2/DE Adults. An audience profile can be compared with the equivalent population profile to produce an index.
Audience Share Channel or Audience Share is calculated by comparing the average minutes viewed/listened for each channel/station in a given time period.
Audio This term in a multimedia context is used to describe digital files that can produce sound.
Audit Normally used in one of three contexts: 1) Audited circulations (see ABC). 2) In-home audit: counting the household stock or consumption of goods (see TCA). 3) Retail audit: check on display, stockholdings or purchase at retail outlets.
Audited Circulation Circulation that has been verified, usually by an independent company as opposed to publishers' claims of circulation
Automated Page Impression A request which a User's browser software made automatically for a site's content in the period being measured. Often found on live game reports, scorecards, share pages etc.
AV Audio Visual. Equipment for all aspects of TV and radio.
AV Play A file request by a valid user for AV content.
Avatar A picture or cartoon used to represent an individual in chat forums, games or on a website as a help function
Average Audience Calculated by adding together the audience for each individual minute of the programme, and dividing it by the programme's total duration ( in minutes ).
Average Audience (Radio) The average number of listeners in a given time period, such as half-hour, or a programme.
Average Audience (television) In terms of television research, this is the audience that is most similar to the commercial spot audience.
Average Frequency Estimate of the average number or times the audience had an opportunity to see an advertisement (in print of TV). Another name for Average OTS.
Average Hours Per Head The total hours of listening to a station each week averaged across the total population of the UK/area.
Average Hours Per Listener/Viewer The total hours of listening or viewing to a station averaged across all those listening or viewing the station.
Average Issue Readership An estimate of the number of people who read or looked at an average issue of a publication.
Average Listening Hours The total hours of listening to a station during the course of the week averaged by head or by listener.
Average OTS The term "opportunity" recognises that while everyone who reads/looks at an advertisement could see that advertisement, not everyone does so.
Average Page/Spread Traffic Average Page Traffic is the average of the page traffic scores for each of the pages in a publication.
Average Weight of Speed Amount spent on a category in a given time-frame.
AVI Windows PCs digital video format. AVI files use the extension ".avi"
AWOP Average Weight of Purchase. % of units purchased in a given time-frame.
BACC Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre: the body that is responsible for examining and clearing television adverts for transmission.
Back-lit Describes a poster display in which the advertising message is illuminated from behind with fluorescent bulbs. Posters used in such displays are often printed on translucent plastic.
Backing Up The process of creating a copy of a computer file for security.
Bandwidth A measurement of the volume of data that a modem or communications device is capable of receiving. Bandwidth is measured in hertz or bits.
Bang Tail A detachable extension to the back of an envelope, having a perforated edge and special marketing information or an order form on it.
Banner The generic term for the typical space available to web advertisers. Usually banners will run across the top of a web page. Typical banner measurements may be 30 pixels deep by 560 pixels wide.
Banner Computer Readership Survey This survey reports on readership behaviour, decision-making involvement and use of computers by IT managers and executive users who are decision makers in computer hardware and software.
BAR (ABC) Broadly the standard undiscounted rate at which the publisher sells a 1 year subscription to a publication. It is used as a reference on the certificate to show whether subscriptions are sold at a discounted rate.
BARB BARB is the Broadcaster's Audience Research Board: the joint industry committee, funded by television companies, advertising agencies and advertisers, responsible for quantitative and some qualitative television audience research in the UK. BARB achieves this by awarding contracts to independent research companies which maintain panels and collect, process and disseminate the data on behalf of BARB.
BARB Region Area created by the aggregation of one or more ITV areas. BARB divides the UK into ITV reception areas and BBC editorial regions. Audiences are currently reported for 13 ITV areas and 14 BBC regions.
Barring The ability to stop certain types of broadcast channels or phone calls.
Barter Generally, the exchange of goods and services without the use of cash; in the media market, the acquisition of media time or space in exchange for merchandise.
Base The Unweighted Base (in a research survey) refers to the number of individuals, households, etc. that were interviewed, either in total or by demographic sub-group.
Baseband The name given to a satellite TV signal before it is converted into a signal that is suitable for a TV.
Basic Service The minimum package of channels that are available to cable and satellite subscribers for a set monthly fee. These channels do not include premium channels that are only available at an extra charge. A 'basic channel' is one included in the basic service.
Baud Rate The speed per second at which data is transmitted and received over a network.
BBC iPlayer The BBC iPlayer is an Internet TV service from the BBC. Formerly called the iMP (interactive media player), and launched fully on the 25th Dec 2007, it provides users with 7-day catch up services for the BBC's TV and radio channels.
BBFC British Board of Film Classification - http://www.bbfc.co.uk/
BBP British Business Press
BBS Bulletin Board System. Allows you to talk to other users.
BCP (ABC) Basic Cover Price - ABC defines the BCP as the price at which a single copy of the Publication may normally be purchased, in contrast to a special price for a limited period.
BDP Bulk Distribution
BE: Europe The media survey of Europe's business elite. BE:EUROPE is run by Ipsos MediaCT and offers users marketing and media data on the most senior business decision makers in medium/large business establishments across 17 countries.
Beam Satellite transmission pattern; wide, narrow or spot.
Bearing The angle at which a poster is oriented in relation to its environment.
Behavioural Targeting A form of online marketing that uses advertising technology to target web users based on their previous behaviour. Advertising creative and content can be tailored to be of more relevance to a particular user by capturing their previous decision making b
Behavioural Targetting A form of online marketing that uses advertising technology to target web users based on their previous behaviour. Advertising creative and content can be tailored to be of more relevance to a particular user by capturing their previous decision making behaviour (eg: filling out preferences or visiting certain areas of a site frequently) and looking for patterns.
Below the Line Forms of marketing that do not involve conventional mass market advertising, e.g. direct mail, special promotions
Beta Testing The provision of software and hardware free of charge to selected people for their conditional use in order for them to report back any problems or errors.
Betacam SP Analogue videotape format of broadcast quality.
Big data Big data is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing applications.
Billets/ebiquity Collect and analyse competitor creatives and advertising spend data from over 70 countries. Provide MediaTel with television sponsorship data.
Bird Colloquial description of a satellite.
Bit Unit of measurement of data transmitted in digital form. Hence the measurement of the capacity of a cable system to carry information will be in terms of kilobits or megabits per second(Kbits/s,Mbits/s). (See also Bandwidth).
Bit rate The speed at which a digital file is transferred expressed in bits per second, eg 1 Bps. Bit rate is defined in video streaming to indicate interuption free viewing.
Bits and Bytes A 'bit' is the smallest unit of data transmitted on computers and is represented by either a '1' or '0'. A byte is created from a string of eight bits and is the data needed to store one character, such as a letter or number.
BitTorrent A peer-to-peer file sharing protocol commonly used for the illegal sharing of digital files.
Bleed Pages This is applicable to advertisements in which printed matter runs off the cut edge of the page (trim). The cost of bleed pages is expressed either as a fixed charge or as a percentage extra above the price of the display rates.
blinkbox blinkbox is a UK-based video-on-demand (VoD) website that allows users to legally preview, buy and rent thousands of full length premium movies and TV shows online.
Blinkbox A video-on-demand (VoD) service available on computers, games consoles, tablet computers and Smart TVs.
Blocks Letterpress printing surface made from etched metal. Camera ready artwork. Copy prepared to a standard which can be photographed for plate making.
Blog An online space regularly updated presenting the opinions or activities of one or a group of individuals and displaying in chronological order.
Blog/Blogging Also Weblog- a website on which internet users make regular entries or "posts", with the most recent ones appearing on top. Personal blogs are written by an individual, often daily.
Blu-ray Disc/ BD Blu-ray disc is the next generation of optical disc format used for high-definition video and data storage. Blu-ray discs are the same size as CDs and DVDs but can store up to 50 gigabytes (6 times the capacity of DVD) of information. Blu-ray can be played on blu-ray disc players on Sony's Playstation games console.
Bluetooth A technology that allows devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and laptop computers to communicate with each other without the need for cables to connect them. This is done using short-range radio waves.
BMRC British Media Research Committee - A body composed of representatives of the six publishing houses and other sponsors who guarantee the funding of the British Business Survey.
Bookmark A function in a Web browser that enables an Internet user to save addresses (URL) of their favourite Web for future reference.
Booster/Boosted Sample Used to provide larger samples of certain groups of people than representative sampling would give.
Bound-in Inserts Insert stitched into magazine spine.
BPA Business Publications Audit Of Circulation Inc
BRAD British Rate and Data: compendium of basic British media data - rates, copy dates, addresses, etc .
Brand (Internet) A brand may be a branded subsidiary or a brand of a property that has a consistent collection of branded content of the internet. The brand's individual identity must be conveyed consistently or prominently throughout the brand as well as all channels and domains, which are in its consolidation. A brand may consist of channels, domains and URL's.
Brand Equity Brand equity is the sum of attitudes, feelings, imagery, associations and emotions that consumers feel towards a brand.
Break A break in television or radio transmission during which advertisements are transmitted. An end break is broadcast at the start or end of a programme, while a centre break is broadcast within a programme.
Break Bumper A quiz or competition that is broadcast at the beginning of the commercial break with the answer being associated with the commercials shown in between.
British Business Survey Ipsos Media CT's British Business Survey is credited as the most reliable and widely used survey for buying and selling advertising aimed at the GB business market.
Broadband A telecommunications term used to describe any transmission system that can transmit voice, video and data faster than a standard telephone line (narrowband).
Broadband (Cable & Satellite) Cable with the capacity to carry a large number of television channels, i.e. 30 or more. Same meaning as wideband.
Broadcast Broadcast is the term used to describe the process of distributing a signal, such as TV or radio, from a single source or transmitter, to many destinations, such as viewers' homes.
Broadcast Relay Broadcast Relay systems are often called communal aerial systems. They exist to provide BBC, ITV and Channel 4 to a number of homes from a master aerial.
Broadsheet National or local/regional newspaper which is approximately 56cms in depth, compared with the 36cms depth of 'tabloids'. In the national press sector, the broadsheet format is used nowadays only by some quality ('upmarket') newspapers.
Bromides Photographic light sensitive paper reproducing a positive image.
Browser Software that allows Internet users to view Web pages and navigate the Web.
BT TV UK based digital TV platform operated by BT. Known as a Freeview/IPTV hybrid service, it is a combination of a Freeview set top-box, a digital television recorder (DTR), and also incorporates a broadband connection to provide subscribers with a large library of on-demand programming. Subscribers are able to view all of the Freeview channels, and record up to 80 hours worth of programming.
Buffering When a streaming media player saves portions of file until there is enough information for the file to begin playing.
Bulk Sales Bulk Sales (sometimes referred to as ‘Multiple Copy Sales’) are copies sold in bulk to a third party usually for onward free distribution to individuals
Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) Originally a system on an individual computer that users or members would dial into to leave and read messages. These tended to be closed systems, where members would have to know the individual phone number to dial into and the number of concurrent users would be limited by the number of phone lines into a particular board. Now the term is sometimes used to describe a notice board or chat area of a Web site, most commonly known as a Forum.
Bumpers Short (usually 5- or 10-second) branded sponsorship credits appearing at the beginning and end of a sponsored programme, and either side of a commercial break.
Burn The process of transferring information to a CD-ROM.
Burnt-In Ads Burnt-in advertisements are those which are inserted and coded into on-demand content by the broadcaster, before it is sent to the platform.
Burst A period of concentrated advertising activity
BUSADS BUS Audience Data System
Business to business classifieds Classified advertising that is directed towards business customers.
Business-to-business (B-2-B) Expression describing a type of advertising campaign or medium by means of which businesses communicate with other businesses. This type of advertising contrasts with consumer advertising, as the prime targets of business-to-business media and campaigns are companies or individuals with certain responsibilities within companies.
Businessmen Generally speaking, the definition of businessmen is men and women in eligible industries and occupations that are involved in business.
Button A square online advert usually found embedded within a website page. See also Universal Advertising Package, embedded formats.
Buttons A square online advert usually found embedded within a website page. See also Universal Advertising Package, embedded formats
Buzz Marketing Marketing activity using word of mouth communication
BVS (Bulk Verification Services) Procedure to certify distribution of publications delivered in bulk to predetermined distribution points for onward transmission to readers. Subsidiary of ABC.
Byte A byte is created from a string of eight bits and is the data needed to store one character, such as a letter or number.
CAA Cinema Advertising Association - Trade association of cinema advertising contractors operating in the UK and Eire. Its main functions are to promote, monitor and maintain standards of cinema advertising exhibition as well as commission and co-ordinate research into cinema as an advertising medium including the co-ordination of weekly cinema admissions and the annual CAVIAR surveys.
Cable This refers to services that are transmitted over wires or fibre-optic cable rather than over the airwaves.
Cable Modem A device that allows Internet access using cable.
Cable Operators The company that lays cable, owns and operates a cable system. Companies that own more than one system are called Multiple Systems Operators (MSOs), eg. Virgin Media.
Cable Penetration Either the proportion of cable subscribers to all TV homes in the area, expressed as a percentage or more commonly in the UK, the proportion of cable subscribers to Homes Passed (see Cable & Satellite).
Cable Provider Company licensed to install and maintain cable systems.
Cable-cutting See cord-cutting
Cache A term used on the Internet. Browsers keep the data they download from a page in storage on the local computer, which speeds up access to the next page- for example, caching the logo image so that it does not have to be downloaded again.
Cache Busting A method to prevent computers from serving content from their cache, to ensure more accurate visitor statistics.
Cache Memory Used to store web pages you have seen already. When you go back to those pages they'll load more quickly because they come from the cache and don't need to be downloaded over the internet again.
Caching The copying of a web element (page or ad) by a website visitors computer for later reuse.
Call to Action (CTA) A statement or instruction, typically promoted in print, web, TV, radio, onportal, or other forms of media (often embedded in advertising), that explains to a mobile subscriber how to respond to an opt-in for a particular promotion or mobile initiative,
Callback In survey research: 1. When an interviewer returns to a previous informant to elicit further data. 2. A repeat call when the listed person was not available for interview on previous occasion.
CAM Foundation Communicatio Advertising Marketing - The CAM Foundation has been developing qualifications and supporting the Marketing Communication industry and professional since then and is a member of the Advertising Association and the DMA.
Campaign A promotional effort based on the same strategy and creative idea.
Campaign Period The duration of a promotional effort.
Campaign Reach the number of different individuals who are exposed to any part of a schedule of commercials.
Cancellation date One of the terms of business of most media, whereby a space or airtime booking must be cancelled on or before a certain fixed date or time period before the appearance or transmission of an advertisement.
CAP The Committee of Advertising Practice was set up in 1961. It is the executive and policy-making body responsible for making sure that the self-regulatory system continues to operate effectively. Representatives of all the major trade and professional bodies for advertisers, agencies and the media sit on it. It is CAP that writes the British Codes of Advertising and Sales Promotion and provides the majority of the sanctions to enforce this system of self-regulatory control.
CAPI Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing - Interviewers carry a laptop computer which presents each question on the screen, and interviewers directly key in the respondents' replies.
Capibus Capibus is the Ipsos in-home omnibus survey.
Card Sorting The method by which publication masthead cards or other names are sorted by respondents into groups.
Carlton Screen Advertising Now DCM- One of the UK's cinema contractors - http://www.dcm.co.uk/
CAS Central Audit Service
Case rate A method for setting advertising budgets (also known as 'per case allowance') according to which a fixed sum for advertising is arrived at based on a forecast of unit sales over the next year.
CASI Abbreviation of Computer Aided Self-Completion Interview.
Catch up Catch up is VOD (video on demand) in which TV shows are available for a period of days after the original broadcast.
Catch Up TV See Catch-Up TV
Catch-up Catch up is VOD (video on demand) in which TV shows are available for a period of days after the original broadcast.
Catch-up TV Catch up TV or Replay TV is a type of Internet TV in which TV shows are available through the Internet for a period of days after the original broadcast. The shows are made available by the broadcasters themselves, and also by aggregator sites. Examples in the UK are iPlayer, 4od and itvPlayer.
Cathode Ray Tube Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). Used in most television sets built to date, it is an electronic display device in which a beam of electrons is focused on a glass viewing screen to produce an image
CATI Abbreviation of Computer Assisted Telephone Interview.
CATV CATV (originally "community antenna television," now often "community access television") is more commonly known as "cable TV." In addition to bringing television programs to those millions of people throughout the world who are connected to a community antenna, cable TV is an increasingly popular way to interact with the World Wide Web and other new forms of multimedia information and entertainment services.
CAVIAR Cinema And Video Industry Audience Research. Now known as FAME, CAVIAR was the most comprehensive survey into film viewing in the UK, providing valuable trend data and detailed information on the cinema visit and films seen, also additional data has added an extra dimension.
CAWI Abbreviation of Computer Aided Web Interview.
CCA Cable Communications Association
CD-ROM Abbreviation of Compact Disk Read Only Memory.
CDN Content delivery network or content distribution network; CDN operators work on behalf of VOD services, broadcasters and media companies to deliver the content to their audience of end-users.
Cells In survey analyses, mutually exclusive sub-groups.
Channel Mapping A feature found on some televisions, video recorders and set top boxes.
Channel reach Channel reach (or patronage) is the absolute percentage of people who watch a channel at all over a particular period of time (typically one day, week or month). It is a key measure for both broadcasters and advertisers.
Channel Share Channel share gives the percentage of the viewing audience watching one channel as opposed to the other channels, over a given period of time. The calculation is made minute by minute and an average is then taken. For example, if ITV achieved a channel share of 38% in January, this means that of all individuals watching television in an average January minute, 38% were watching ITV while the other 62% were watching BBC1, BBC2, Channel 4 or satellite channels. Channel share should not be confused with TVR. Channel share is often referred to as 'audience share', 'share of viewing' or 'percentage share', especially when the subject is a particular programme's share rather than a channel's in general.
Chat Live or "real time" discussion between people online, in an environment often known as a chat room.
Chat Impression (HTML) A file, or combination of files, sent to a valid User while the User is involved in an interactive Chat session (i.e. a Page Impression generated by a Chat URL.). Chat URLs show the input of one or more concurrent Users, visible to each other, updated fre
Chief Income Earner The household member who is mainly responsible for the financial support of the household.
Chief Shopper The member of the household (male or female) who is solely or mainly responsible for the household's shopping.
Children's Club Buying Route (Cinema) Running predominantly across the school holiday periods and incorporating those films targeted at older children.
Chrominance Part of a TV signal carrying the colour information of the picture
Churn Turnover of subscribers/number of disconnections. Churn is usually quoted as a percentage.
Churn Rate A measure of subscriber turnover (new subscribers/disconnections) applied to Pay TV.
Cinema Media Formerly known as RSA Advertising, Cinema Media was then rebranded as Carlton Screen Advertising, and now DCM (Digital Cinema Media).
Circulation In Print research it is the number of copies of a publication sold, sent to subscribers, sent free of charge to specified people or addresses, or otherwise distributed to readers.
Circulation Audit Circulation that has been verified, usually by an independent company as opposed to publishers' claims of circulation.
Classified Rates These are adverts which appear under publishers' classification headings. These will be mono prices unless otherwise stated. Series discounts are given. The classification will be given along with the size (often scc or lineage). Semi-display classified adverts appear boxed or in some way enhanced. Strict definition is at the publishers discretion. Display classified adverts are display advertisements appearing under classified headings.
Click The act of clicking the 'mouse' when using the World Wide Web to activate a link.
Click to Call A service that enables a mobile subscriber to initiate a voice call to a specified phone number by clicking on a link on a mobile internet site. Typically used to enhance and provide a direct response mechanism in an advertisement.
Click-Through When a user interacts with an advertisement and clicks through to the advertiser’s website.
Clickthrough When visitors click on a banner advertisement, taking them to the advertiser's site.
Clickthrough Rate Percentage of times an advertisement is clicked, divided by the number of times it is seen.
Clickthroughs The number of times visitors viewing an ad click on that ad.
Clickthru This is the number of times a banner ad at a site is clicked on by a visitor. When ad's are clicked on, the user is usually brought to another location or site for more information.
Client Another term for a web browser as in client-server technology where a user's client reads web pages stored on a publisher's server.
Clip Art Collections of digital images used in multimedia productions.
Closed Captioning Closed captioning is a term describing several systems developed to display text on a television or video screen to provide additional or interpretive information to viewers who wish to access it, including those with hearing disabilities.
Cloud Networked online storage for file-hosting services.
Cluster Statistical technique for grouping the people researched by a survey not by single criteria like age, sex, etc but by a large number of their characteristics.
Cluster Samples The grouping together of individuals for sampling purposes - usually geographically reduce time and cost of interviewer's travel.
Clutter Visual or audible stimuli that draws attention away from the advertising message, often caused by different advertisements competing for the viewers' or listeners' attention
CLV Customer lifetime value
CMS Content management system
Coaxial Cable Two concentric tubular copper conductors with an insulator in between, able to carry many different channels simultaneously. Each channel is modulated at a different frequency, and a timer at the receiver sorts out the required signal.
COBA COBA (the Commercial Broadcasters Association) is the industry body for commercial broadcasters who invest in the UK independent of public funding or incentives.
Coffee time Commercial airtime daypart, with slots scheduled for late morning, loosely defined as being from about 11.00am to noon.
Cold-set Printing in which the ink is allowed to dry on an absorbent paper without heat.
Collotype Gelatine coated plates producing continuous tone reproduction.
Colour Rates Full colour refers to the four colour process. Separations into the four process colours (black, magenta, cyan and yellow) by filters are required, resulting in four films to make printing plates. These may be listed as a percentage extra, ot total cost above the cost of mono display rates. Series discounts may be given.
Commercial & Programme Logs List of all commercials and programmes transmitted, sent to AGB five times a week by TV companies. This information is matched to data collected from the panel to indicate who watched what. Commercial logs are provided in computer format; AGB processes more than 100,000 occurrences of commercials per week. Programme logs are provided on paper except Channel 4 which is provided in computer format.
Commercial Break A break in television or radio transmission during which advertisements are transmitted. An end break is broadcast at the start or end of a programme, while a centre break is broadcast within a programme.
Commercial Impacts The impacts achieved by a campaign are the total number of times that campaign is heard. Calculated by a campaign's reach in thousands x OTH.
Commercial Minutage Number of minutes on television during which commercials (as opposed to programmes, trailers etc.) are broadcast.
Commission An amount of income received by a publisher for some quantifiable action such as selling an advertiser’s product and/or service on the publisher’s website.
Communications Satellite Low power satellite that may be used either for relaying TV channels or for electronic data transmission, such as video conferencing or telephony, which is received by large dish receivers.
Community Antennae Television CATV systems are cable networks, often servicing an entire town or city, where an operator at the headend of the cable system controls which channels are relayed down the cable to subscribers connected to the system. Satellite-delivered TV channels are currently being picked up by CATV cable operators with a large dish receiver at the headend of the cable system and relayed down the cable to the subscriber.
Completed Download A request for a file, typically audio or video, which can be used offline, where the size of the file transferred is greater than 95%.
Completed Podcast A completed request for a file, typically audio or video, which can be used offline, following the receipt of an automated notification of the file's availability.
Completion Rate The rate at which viewers watch a specified portion of a given video. Used interchangeably with "play-through rate".
Composition The percentage of a TV/radio programme's audience or a publication's readers who fall into a given target group.
Compress A digital picture manipulator effect where the picture is squeezed (made proportionally smaller).
Compressed Digital TV Future TV standard which involves converting the signal to a digital data stream and compressing it by removing repeated information. With a special receiver it enables several channels to use just one satellite transponder.
Compression Digital process that reduces the space taken by data allowing it to be stored and transmitted more efficiently.
Computer Bureaux Companies conducting computer analysis of survey databases.
Concept Testing Concept testing is the process of using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate consumer response to a product idea prior to the introduction of a product to the market.
Concurrent Viewing In TV audience measurement, the viewing of the same individual in relation to two or more TV sets at the same time.
Conditional Access The name given to the technology that allows authorised users to access digital television services by encrypting the transmitted content that is then converted by a decoder.
Confidence Limits Confidence limits are an estimate, derived from statistical theory, of the ranges of values within which the "true" figure is likely to lie.
Confirmit Confirmit is the software package used by Ipsos to design and deliver many of their online surveys.
Connected consumer The term connected consumer captures the on-line and off-line behaviors enabled via mobile and social media channels that are influencing brand and product choices in all categories.
Connected TV Integration of the internet into modern television sets and set-top boxes, as well as the technological convergence between computers and these television sets / set-top boxes. These new devices most often also have a much higher focus on online interactive media, Internet TV, over-the-top content, as well as on-demand streaming media.
Consolidated Viewing Consolidated viewing includes live viewing and video playback, which is recorded and watched within seven days of programme transmission. All data within the Yearbook is consolidated unless otherwise stated.
ConStruct ConStruct is a unique Ipsos solution for developing and refining different service or product features based on a set of feature benefits (typically ideas).
Consumer classifieds (All other listings) Classified adverts relating to any category beyond recruitment – e.g. automotive. Reported revenues should relate only to the direct cost of listing the advert rather than money generated from additional services.
Consumer classifieds (Jobs & recruitment) An advertiser pays for space to display a classified ad relating to jobs and recruitment. Although some of these may include images, we think of classifieds as being listings rather than graphical adverts, in a way that mirrors the classified adverts you
Consumer Publication A publication designed for a general consumer or special interest markets e.g. photography, gardening.
Content Information or entertainment produced by an advertiser or media company for use in a Web site or similar environment.
Content Delivery Network (CDN) A content delivery network or content distribution network is an interconnected system of servers deployed in multiple data centres with the goal to serve content to end-users with high availability and high performance by reproducing the content on multiple servers and directing the content to users based on proximity. A CDN operator gets paid by content providers such as media companies for delivering their content to their audience of end-users. In turn, a CDN pays ISPs, carriers, and network operators for hosting its servers in their data centres.
Content Provider The group or company responsible for online content.
Content sponsorship Advertiser sponsorships of content areas (e.g. entire website, homepage or a specific channel) to include the total value of the package including any embedded or interruptive formats. This category also includes revenue related to email advertising or p
Content Tracking System In TV audience measurement, a system used to identify which channel is being viewed and also to identify time shift viewing.
Contextual Advertising Advertising that is targeted to the content on the Web page being viewed by a user at that specific time.
Continuous Sample A continuous sample is defined to be the group of panel homes from which a valid record of viewing is obtained for every day in a specified set of days. All individuals resident in the continuous sample of homes themselves form a continuous sample of individuals provided that their residence persists for the whole of the period in question.
Controlled Circulation Copies of a publication that are distributed free of charge to specified people or addresses.
Convergence The delivery of several types of content to a single receiver, e.g. a TV set able to give access to digital, interactive, audio or other services.
Conversion Rate The rate at which visitors are converted from viewing an ad to buying a product/service.
Conversion Rate The ratio of online video plays to displays. 10 displays with 1 play is a conversion rate of 10%
Converter Decoders are supplied to cable and satellite subscribers to enable them to receive signals to their television sets. Also known as a Converter or Set Top Box.
Cookie A file that a Web site puts on the hard disk to inform the site of the visitor's preferences.
Copy Protection A way of stopping copyright theft from DVDs and CDs.
Copy Test Another name, used in Germany, for a Page Traffic survey.
Cord-cutting TV subscribers cutting off their cable subscriptions as content is now available through the internet
Core Audience The core audience is the percentage of people who watch the whole programme, from the first minute to the last minute.
Corporate campaign A corporate advertising campaign addresses general company objectives and targets a broad audience, rather than focussing on specific sales or awareness requirements.
COS Council of Outdoor Specialists - Works to promote reputation of outdoor specialists who plan and place advertisements on outdoor sites to advertisers, agencies and contractors. Members are the 7 major specialists who account for 85% of all outdoor billings.
Cost Efficiency Factor The value of an advertising schedule, or one advertisement in a single publication or TV spot in relation to its cost.
Cost efficiency factor Representing the value of a station in reaching a specific target group. CEF is expressed as a CPT and is calculated as (CPT x Adult Hours) divided by Target Hours.
Cost Per Click Pricing model for online advertising charging advertisers per click on their advertisements.
Cost per Click (CPC) The amount paid by an advertiser for a click on their sponsored search listing. See also PPC.
Cost per Mille (CPM) / Cost per Thousand (CPT) Online advertising can be purchased on the basis of what it costs to show the ad to one thousand viewers (CPM). It is used in marketing as a benchmark to calculate the relative cost of an advertising campaign or an ad message in a given medium. Rather th
Cost Per Rating Point A measure of cost efficiency of advertising campaigns as alternative to Cost per Thousand.
Cost Per Thousand Cost of reaching one thousand people in a Target Audience i.e the cost of reaching a thousand readers or viewers or listeners within a given advertisement.
Cost Rank List of candidate media ranked by Cost Per Thousand to show the relative efficiency with which each reaches the target audience.
Cost-effectiveness Cost-effectiveness is a measure or expression of the extent to which some advertising activity has achieved its goals, per unit cost. Cost-effectiveness should not be confused with cost-efficiency.
Cost-efficiency Cost-efficiency is a comparative measure of audience delivered per unit of cost (eg a TV spot costing £1000 seen by 100,000 housewives delivers a cost-per-thousand of £1000/100 = £10.00). It is typically used in inter- or intra-media comparisons of costs-per-thousand (usually abbreviated to 'cpt' - 'cpm' in some countries).
Couch Potato A name given to individuals who watch large amounts of television.
Cover Abbreviation of Coverage
Cover Rates Covers include outside front (or front page), outside back (or back page), inside front, inside back, and specified positions or sizes on any of these. These will be mono unless otherwise stated. Series discounts may be given.
Coverage The proportion (expressed in percentage terms) of a target audience having an opportunity to see/hear advertising. This is sometimes broken down further: eg 1+ cover is the number of people who have seen at least one spot in the advertising campaign, 3+ cover is the number of people who have seen at least three spots in the advertising campaign etc.
Coverage (NRS) The age/social breakdown (which was selected) as a % of the population.
Coverage Rank List of publications ranked by their coverage of a specified group or target group.
CPA Cost per action/acquisition. The cost incurred when a visitor performs a desired action after viewing an ad e.g. buying a product, registering an email address.
CPC Pricing model for online advertising charging advertisers per click on their advertisements.
CPH Cost Per Hundred - The average cost of achieving 100 TVRs against a specified audience.
CPL Cost per lead, the cost of acquisition of customers’ contact information
CPM Cost per Thousand, an abreviation of 'Cost per Mille' where mille is Latin for thousand.
CPT Cost Per Thousand - Cost of reaching 1000 readers/viewers/ listeners with a given advertisement. In television the cost per thousand is also known as 'average station price' and is used by buying agencies and television contractors when negotiating the cost of airtime.
CPT Impacts Cost per Thousand. The cost of achieving 1000 impacts.
CR Conversion rate
CRCA Commercial Radio Companies Association - ceased existence in July 2006, when it was merged with the RAB to form the Radio Centre
Creative The different forms of created advertising: banners, buttons, pop-ups etc.
CRM Customer Relationship Management.
CRO Conversion rate optimisation
CRO Converstion Rate Optimisation
Cross Media Measurement Audience measurement across different types of media (print, TV, radio, online etc)
Cross Tabulation Most tables in standard survey reports are cross tabulations. They provide large amounts of information about target markets or readers of publications in a relatively compact format.
CRR The Contracts Rights Renewal (CRR) was put in place by the Competition Commission in 2003 following the merger of Carlton and Granada to form ITV plc. CRR is intended to protect the advertising market: a) by guaranteeing that advertisers and media buyers are no worse off following the merger of Carlton and Granada; and b)by putting in place an automatic ratchet which reduces the amount advertisers have to commit if ITVs audience shrinks. The CRR sets out a number of rights that advertisers and media buyers have when buying advertising time from Carlton/Granada, and in particular, gives advertisers and media buyers the right to renew their contracts on a rolling annual basis, adjusted for changes in ITVs audiences, with no reduction in the discounts they receive. Until the remedy is no longer necessary, the share of revenue committed by advertisers/media buyers on television advertising to Carlton/Granada need not increase above 2003 levels.
CRT (cathode ray tube) Cathode Ray Tube (CRT). Used in most television sets built to date, it is an electronic display device in which a beam of electrons is focused on a glass viewing screen to produce an image
CSA Now DCM- Carlton Screen Advertising - Carlton Communications acquired Cinema Media renamed the new division Carlton Screen Advertising. It was decided that the company would benefit from being branded under the same umbrella as its parent company. See MediaTel's Cinema Database
CTA Cable Television Association - The UK trade organisation representing the interests of cable operators, installers, equipment providers and programme providers.
CTR Percentage of times an advertisement is clicked, divided by the number of times it is seen.
CTR Click through rate, the percentage of click-throughs in relation to ad impressions
CTS In TV audience measurement, a system used to identify which channel is being viewed and also to identify time shift viewing.
CTV See ConnectedTV
Cumulative Audience The proportion of a target group who have an opportunity to see or hear one advertisement from a campaign at a specified time.
Cumulative Cover The increased cover resulting from taking space in more than one issue of a particular publication.
Cumulative Readership The Net Reach achieved by a given number of insertions in a single title or schedule.
CX Customer experience
Cyber From the Greek Kybernetes, meaning steersman or governor. Now a prefix to be applied to any word to signify a particular cultural familiarity with new media.
D-MAC/D2-MAC Two variants of the Mac TV formats.
D2C Direct to Consumer
DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting, or Digital Radio. A system of broadcasting which produces near perfect sound quality and has the capacity for data transmission.
DAB-IP DAB-IP (Digital Audio Broadcasting ? Internet Protocol) is a technology used in transmission of mobile TV, using a revised DAB signal that is able to transmit mobile television via internet protocol. DAB-IP is currently the only standard for true IP-based mobile broadcast that can be deployed commercially in the UK, and is essential for BT Movio
DAL Dedicated Advertiser Location: this is accessed via the red button and allows viewers to enter an advertiser environment outside the broadcast stream. This is only available on digital platforms.
DAR Abbreviation of Day-After-Recall.
Data compression A technique that provides for the transmission or storage, without noticeable information loss, of fewer data bits than were originally used when the data was created.
Data Fusion Statistical technique of combining data of two or more surveys.
Data Integration The system of combining different data sources or surveys with each other, often involving statistical fusion techniques.
Day-after recall (DAR) DAR is a way of measuring TV viewing, and is similar to press research, which is also based on recall but covering longer periods. Respondents are asked what they watched yesterday, prompted either by time or programmes, and the data from many days are aggregated together and reported as average quarter-hour viewing of individual channels.
Daypart A section of the viewing day. For example, 0930-1200 is usually known as the coffee-time daypart. Other dayparts, such as peak, are less strictly defined. A common division of the day is as follows: breakfast-time 0600-0930; coffee-time 0930-1200; afternoon 1200-1730; pre-peak 1730-2000; peak 2000-2300; post-peak 2300-2430; and night-time 2330-3000. Times after midnight are expressed with the addition of 2400, for example 1:00am is 2500, 2:13am is 2613, 6:00am is 30000 etc. This is known as the thirty hour clock.
DBS Direct Broadcasting by Satellite. The use of a satellite to transmit highpower television signals for reception direct to homes. DBS services will be carried on cable systems.
DCAB Digital Cable
DCM (Digital Cinema Media) Digital Cinema Media is a joint venture between ODEON and Cineworld providing over 2,300 screens and over 420 sites for advertisers.
DCS Desktop Colour Separation
De-emphasis Filtering introduced by a receiver at transmission to reduce audio noise.
Deadlines Deadlines are for advertisement copy only. Different copy or cancellation dates may apply to different types of advertisement within a publication.
Deadwood address Deadwood address is a term that refers to addresses issued on random probability surveys being ineligible.
Decoder Decoders are supplied to cable subscribers to enable them to receive signals to their television sets. Also known as converters. Decoders may also convert the television set to an interactive terminal.
Dedicated Banner An Internet advertising banner that does not rotate and is seen by every visitor to the Web page that the advert is displayed on.
Dedicated Line A telecommunications line that is permanently connected to the Internet.
Deep-Linking Advert Linking beyond a home page to a page inside the site with content pertinent to the advert.
Deloitte Deloitte is one of the largest professional services organisations in the world and one of the Big Four auditors, along with PricewaterhouseCoopers, Ernst & Young, and KPMG.
Demand 5 The brand name of video on demand services offered by Channel 5
Demand Five Catch-up service offered by Channel Five
Demographic Demographic data collected on surveys including sex, age, social grade, household income, terminal education age, working status, home ownership, tenure in current home, size of household, marital status etc.
Design Factor The amount by which the Standard Error of a survey is greater than that of a perfectly random sample.
DFM Abbreviation of Direct Frequency Measurement.
DHTML Advanced HTML code used by developers to create greater animation and interactivity in ads.
Dial up Access A way of accessing the Internet through the public telephone network using a modem.
Diary A log kept by members of a consumer panel to record their viewing, reading, listening, purchase, consumption or whatever is being measured.
Digital Digital refers to the use of binary codes made up of 0s and 1s to represent data.
Digital Broadcast System The technology used by home satellite-dish owners to receive digital signals that have CD-quality sound and laserdisc quality images.
Digital File Formats Audiovisual files can be formatted in various file types using different standards and codecs, such as Windows Media and MPEG 4.
Digital Media Any video and audio material that have been digitised into 1s and 0s.
Digital Media Adaptor A digital media receiver (DMR), also commonly referred to as a media extender, media streamer, or digital media adapter (DMA), is a home entertainment device that can connect to a home network to retrieve digital media files (such as music, pictures, or video) from a personal computer or other networked media server and play them back on a home theater system or TV.
Digital Media Receiver A digital media receiver (DMR), also commonly referred to as a media extender, media streamer, or digital media adapter (DMA), is a home entertainment device that can connect to a home network to retrieve digital media files (such as music, pictures, or video) from a personal computer or other networked media server and play them back on a home theatre system or TV.
Digital Radio Digital Radio, or Digital Audio Broadcasting. A system of broadcasting which produces near perfect sound quality and has the capacity for data transmission.
Digital Radio Development Bureau Industry body set up in partnership by the BBC and Commercial Radio to promote digital radio in the UK.
Digital Radio Multiplex These are transmitters used by digital radio stations to broadcast digital.
Digital Switchover The government is switching off all the analogue broadcast wavelengths for television (see Digital TV). There is a timetable in place for digital switchover with regions being switched over in turn from 2007 through to 2012.
Digital TV With digital TV, sound and pictures from the broadcaster are converted into 'bits' of information and sent through an aerial, satellite, telephone line or cable. This digital signal is then turned back into sound and pictures by a digital box or a digital television set. This offers new ways to experience TV: extra TV channels as standard, Improved picture quality and new features, Including on-screen TV listings, true widescreen picture and red-button interactivity
Digital TV Switchover The digital television switchover was the process in which analogue television broadcasting converted to digital television. This was completed in the UK in 2012.
Digital Video Broadcasting Also known as DVB. This refers to an organisation with over 220 members in 25 countries worldwide, which devised a set of standards for digital broadcasting by satellite, cable and terrestrial infrastructures.
Digitisation The process of converting analogue material into a digital format.
Dimensions (Press) Sizes are given in millimetres, with the exception of some Irish publications which quote sizes in Imperial measurements.
Dipstick Survey Tailor-made research to RAJAR specifications to provide listening levels. Often used by smaller stations who do not subscribe to RAJAR.
Dipstick Surveys Any survey that provides a single measure.
Direct Broadcasting Satellite DBS comprises a satellite transmission delivered direct to any viewer within the satellite footprint, who possesses his own dish aerial receiver. This term contrasts with point-to-point distribution, which involves a central receiving station.
Direct Mail Delivery of the advertising message direct to people's homes via the letterbox.
Discrete Choice Modelling A discrete choice model predicts a decision made by an individual as a function of any number of variables.
Dish Parabolic shaped antenna used to receive DBS signals. Also known as an earth station.
Disney Buying Route (Cinema) Running predominantly across the school holiday periods and incorporating high profile Disney releases and other children's animated films.
Display Each and every time a video is loaded in a browser and displayed to the viewer.
Display Advertising Embraces TV, Radio, Posters, Online (excluding Search Marketing) - anything which is 'displayed'.
Display advertising on email Advertising that appears around the unrelated editorial content of email newsletters. This can take the form of embedded formats like banners, or as sponsorship, and includes both optin (sent to customers specifically requesting it) and optout (sent to c
Disproportionate Sampling Deliberate selection of a sample that is not in proportion to the population.
Distribution 1. Delivery of samples, pamphlets, etc ie door-to-door distribution. 2. Availability of a product in retail outlets, the percentage of shops which stock the product. 3. Spread of data along a scale or spectrum. See Frequency Distribution.
Distribution (Gross) The total number of emails sent as part of a single campaigndistribution to all (SMTP) addresses on the distribution list.
Distribution (Net) The total number of emails successfully sent as part of a single campaigndistribution to all (SMTP) addresses on the distribution list.
Distribution Ended The date and time expressed in hours and minutes (GMT) when the last email in a campaigndistribution was sent to the last address on the distribution list.
Distribution Started The date and time expressed in hours and minutes (GMT) when the first email in a campaigndistribution was sent to the first address on the distribution list.
DM Direct mail or Direct message on Twitter
DMB Abbreviation of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting.
DMIS Direct Mail Information Service
Domain A group of unique sites or web pages that end with "domain name*", where "domain name" is the name of the domain and "*" is com, net, etc.
Domain Name The unique name of an internet site eg. www.iabuk.net
Dot Gain The term 'dot gain' describes an increase in the dot-size that can occur when printing takes place. Normally the dot on the film can be reproduced at almost exactly the same size on the metal printing plate, but in the printed version the size may have increased. This is a result of various factors, including the blanket, the machine, the inks and paper being used. The reproduction house must therefore allow dot gain in the reproduction and proofing process. This is done by, in effect, purposely making the dot on the film smaller than it 'should' be as to allow for the gain that will take place at the printing stage.
Double crown Poster size in portrait shape, the equivalent of a quarter of the size of a 4 sheet.
Double Opt-In Confirming your wish for your email address to be held on a mailing list both by subscribing and by sending a conformation email as a reply to the list owner.
Down Converter Device which converts a television or other signal at one frequency to another eg. from a VHF channel to a UHF channel.
Downlink The signal's path from the satellite to the receiving antenna.
Download The transfer of electronic files to the user's computer.
Download-to-Own/DTO Online sale of digital video, where files are downloaded for multiple replays.
Downloading The technology that allows users to store video content on their computer for viewing at a later date. Downloading an entire piece of media makes it more susceptible to illegal duplication.
Downtime A period of time that a computer system is not functioning.
DPA Directory Publishers Association
DPS Double Page Spread
DPS Display Double page spread of advertising
Drive time The morning and afternoon hours of radio broadcasting - "morning drive" is generally agreed as being 0600-1000am, "afternoon drive" as 1500-1900pm.
DRM Digital Rights Management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices.
DRM/Digital Rights Management Allows publishers to control access to, and facilitate payment for, their content.
Dropped Call The ending of a mobile telephone call due to a weak signal.
DRTV Direct Response Television: a TV commercial which carries a response mechanism, usually a telephone number or website address.
DS-CAPI Abbreviation of Double Screen-CAPI. Mainly used for readership research, this is a CAPI interview using a second computer screen for the respondent showing publications' mastheads and other visual aids.
DSAT Digital Satellite
DSL Abbreviation of Digital Subscriber Line. A high-speed Internet connection that is "always on".
DSP Demand side platform
DST Abbreviation of Digital Satellite Television.
DTG Digital TV Group
DTH (Direct To Home) Satellite transmissions received into the home via a dish aerial, as distinct from satellite transmissions relayed via a cable system.
DTH / DBS Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception. A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television distribution services that sometimes carried on the same satellite. The term DTH predates DBS and is often used in reference to services carried by lower power satellites which required larger dishes (1.7m diameter or greater) for reception.
DTR A digital Television recorder; a set top box that incorporates a hard disk recording system, enabling the user to pause, rewind and record live TV programmes. The user is also able to set the DTR to record every episode in a series, and if the DTR has two receivers, watch one programme whilst they record another. Also known as DVRs (digital video recorders) or PVRs (personal video recorders).
DTT Digital Terrestrial Television
DTV DTV is the shortened Digital TV. With digital TV, sound and pictures from the broadcaster are converted into 'bits' of information and sent through an aerial, satellite, telephone line or cable. This digital signal is then turned back into sound and pictures by a digital box or a digital television set. This offers new ways to experience TV: extra TV channels as standard, Improved picture quality and new features, Including on-screen TV listings, true widescreen picture and red-button interactivity
Dual Cable A way of doubling channel size by installing two cables together each carrying different signals.
Dual Panel Household A dual panel household is a home which reports simultaneously on two separate area panels. All dual panel homes must be dual station homes in ITV overlap areas. Not all dual station homes are so used because it is necessary to preserve the sampling representation on each regional panel.
Duplication The estimated number of people who read either two or more given publications or tow or more given issues of the same title or who see two or more TV/radio spots.
Duration (Outdoor) The amount of time that a panel of a given size can, from its moment of visibility, stay within the audience's vision. Combined with Department Of Transport urban speed figures it is possible to calculate likely duration of time which the panel can be viewed. Combined with the above visibility values so an overall measure of impact can be obtained.
DVB Abbreviation for Digital Video Broadcasting.
DVB-H DVB-H is a set of technologies and standards for delivering broadcast TV channels over the terrestrial network to mobile devices.
DVD Abbreviation of Digital Versatile Disk.
DVDR DVD Recorder
DVR Digital Video Recorder (also see DTR)
Dwelling Unit An enclosed, private living area that has a separate entrance from a public area - e.g. a flat.
Dynamic Ad Delivery Based upon predetermined criteria, Dynamic Ad Delivery is the process by which a mobile advertisement is delivered, via a campaign management platform, to a publisher’s mobile content.
Dynamic advertising targeting Dynamically targeted adverts which deliver different adverts to different groups of readers while they are reading the same page. New software which is being adopted in 1997 by some of the main UK new media publishers is opening up the direct marketing potential of the web. There are two types of dynamic targeting. The first, and simplest, allows adverts to be targeted from information which is carried to the website by the users browser. Typically this will include the type of browser and computer, a generalised statement of what country they are reading from (unfortunately this is based on domain names and often fails) and information about which websites they have visited. The second method is only open to sites like the Telegraphs Electronic Telegraph which have a registered base of users for which they know certain characteristics. In theory an advert could be targeted based on any of the data captured in the questionnaire such as age, gender, occupation.
Dynamic Labels The system used to display content information for broadcasts via digital radio.
e-commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the internet.
E-zine Web sites that contain magazine type content on the Internet.
EBRS European Business Readership Survey - This survey investigates the readership behaviour of the senior business community in Western Europe. In 2008 relaunched as BE: Europe (Business Elite Europe)
Eccentricity Otherwise known as distance from curbside.
Econometrics The branch of economics concerned with the use of mathematical methods (especially statistics) in describing economic systems.
ECPM Effective CPM
EDI Entertainment Data International
Effective Frequency An assumed or estimated optimum frequency of exposure in an advertising campaign.
Effective Reach is the percentage of the target audience who have the opportunity to see (OTS) the desired number of TV spots, or hear radio spots, or see press ads etc.
Effective Reach (Effective Cover) The percentage of the target audience who have the opportunity to see (OTS) the desired number of TV spots (or hear radio spots, or see press ads ),eg . if it is desired that the target audience see between 2 and 8 spots, then the effective reach of the schedule was the percentage with between 2 and 8 OTS.
Effective Sample Size The sample size after reductions due to weighting and design factors have been taken into account.
EIRP (Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power) Measure of a satellite's signal strength received on the ground.
Electronic lock A system whereby a user has to enter a personal code before a phone can be used.
Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) Abbreviated to EPG. A device that provides an on-screen listing of all programming and content that an interactive television subscriber or digital television viewer has available to them.
Elevation Vertical angle between an antenna's reception path and the horizontal.
Eligibility Criteria Requirements that respondents must meet to be included in the sample such as income, country of residence, job title, etc.
Email Electronic mail carried on the Net.
Email Address A typical email address will be written as info@mediatel.co.uk with the username first, the @ symbol and then the organisation email address.
Email bounced Those emails sent as part of a mailing distribution which did not have a valid recipient email address and so generated a formal failure message. (ABC Electronic jargon buster definition)
Email Campaign An advertising campaign sent out to a pre-determined list of email addresses. These must now be all opt-in.
Emails Bounced Those emails sent as part of a mailing distribution which did not have a valid recipient email address, and so generated a formal failure message (Non Delivery Notification).
Embedded Format Advertising formats that are displayed in set spaces on a publisher's page. See also banners, skyscrapers, button
Embedded Hyperlink Also known as external link, link, hot text or hypertext. A link from one Web site to another or another part of the current Web site.
EML Abbreviation of Extended Media List.
Emoticons Emoticon symbols are used to indicate mood in an electronic mode of communication eg: email or instant messenger. :-)
Encoding The conversion of an analogue signal to a digital format.
Encryption The process by which data is only made readable by the receiver.
Engagement The qualitative aspect of the use of media, print and electronic media in general and individual publications, channels and programmes in particular, describing the relationship of users to each medium.
Environment Normally 'Editorial Environment': the character of the publication, the surrounding programmes, editorial style of the publication, etc
EPC (Average Earnings Per One Hundred Clicks) A relative rating that illustrates the ability to convert clicks into commissions. It is calculated by taking commissions earned (or commissions paid) divided by the total number of clicks times 100.
EPG Advertisments ‘EPG hosted ads’ are display advertising formats which sit within the platforms Electronic Programme Guide (EPG). Although situated in a frerquently visited location, the executions on EPGs are pretty much limited to simple graphics. The two most popular implementations which feature most notably on Virgin Media's TV service are (1) EPG Banners and (2) Quarter Screen Windows.
EPG Banner Ads Used extensively on the internet, banner ads in EPGs currently dominate other formats. However, when compared to their online counterparts, EPG banners are not as advanced in terms of functionality, interactivity, graphical property or the metrics they offer. They are, for now, integrated into the EPG and not dynamically served. Interactivity is typically limited to ‘press red’ in a static image or a series of static images of a relatively low resolution.
EPM Earnings per thousand
EPS Encapsulated Postscript: a DSC-conforming PostScript document with additional restrictions intended to make EPS files usable as a graphics file format. In other words, EPS files are more-or-less self-contained, reasonably predictable PostScript documents that describe an image or drawing, that can be placed within another PostScript document.
Equal Impacts (TV) A strategy for regional allocation giving equal numbers of TVRs to all regions giving equal numbers of TVR's to all regions.
ERHP Abbreviation for Early Right Hand Page, an advertisement position in a publication regarded by many advertisers as more effective than later or left hand positions. It is therefore often (though not always) sold at a premium. 'Early' is generally recognised to signify 'in the front half of the publication'.
EST Electronic sell-through. Online sale of digital content.
Establishment Survey A survey conducted by BARB to determine the number and broad characteristics of homes and individuals in total, and able to receive ITV or Channel 4 within the range of a given television station's transmitter.
Eurocrypt Smart card scrambling system used with many Mac transmissions.
Eutelsat The equivalent association of Intelsat for the post and telecommunications ministries (PTTs) of the West European nations.
Event Timer Programmable timer built into a receiver to switch on and change channels for unattended video recording.
Expandable banner/skyscraper Fixed online advertising placements that expand over the page in the response to user action eg: mouseover. See also Rich Media.
Expandable Banners A standard banner ad (468 pixels x 60 pixels) which can expand in height after a user clicks on it or after a user moves their cursor over the banner.
Exposure (Advertisement) Actual exposure of the advertisement to the member of the target audience. The conversion of an Opportunity-To-See into an impact. Not currently measured by our standard media surveys.
Exposure Value A value given to a medium to allow for those with a specific chance of seeing the advertisement e.g. 'present in room during commercial break' or 'opening the spread of the publication in which the advertisement appears'.
Extended hours Extended hours is where digital channels have longer transmission hours than their analogue counterpart (or have different programming due to, say, broadcasting rights).
Extended Media List (EML) The name of the Grouped Titles Technique adopted by the UKS National Readership Survey (NRS)
Extensible Hypertag Markup Language (XHTML) aka WAP 2.0 The language used to create most mobile internet sites.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) Language used by many internet applications for exchanging information.
Exterion Media Exterion Media are an outdoor advertising company specialising in transport media including Docklands Light Railway, London Underground, national buses, trams and rail. See Exterion
Extranet An extended Intranet that is available to authorised selected users (such as clients) in remote locations.
Eyeballs Word used to describe the number of people that see a Website.
Face Used by Route to describe the number of advertising opportunities within each ‘frame’. A scrolling frame might have three advertising opportunities (or faces), a digital frame might have seven advertising opportunities (or faces).
FAME (Film Audience Measurement & Evaluation) Previously titled CAVIAR, FAME (launched in 2007) is the cinema industry research currency that is designed to understand behaviours and attitudes towards cinema. FAME is an improved online survey providing in-depth insight into film viewing across cinema, DVD, online and new emerging formats. The research also provides further insight into behaviour at the cinema which can be cross analysed with a number of different brands and product categories.
FAST Europe The Future of European Advertising Stakeholders (www.fasteurope.org) is a broad-based industry group made out of all key constituencies of the European digital advertising market.
Favorites A facility built into browsers which allows users to store the address of their favourite pages on the web.
FB Facebook
Fibre optics Thin glass or plastic cabling that is used to transmit data at high-speed, for example audio and video signals to TV sets.
Fieldwork The act of interviewing or checking; the actual gathering of the basic information for the survey. Also the period across which the information was gathered. the actual gathering of the basic information for the survey. Also the period across which the information was gathered.
File Header A file segment that describes the format and type of data that is contained in a file.
Film 1) Film comes in the form of a "negative" or a "positive". 2) On one side will be the photosensitive coating known as "emulsion". This is expressed as "emulsion side up" or "emulsion side down" 3) The image will be "right reading" one way around, the inverted reverse image being "wrong reading".
Film Packages Buying Route Individual film titles may be chosen, enabling effective creative links between commercial and film, or precise targeting around appropriate releases, creating the opportunity to reach niche audiences.
FIPP International Federation of the Periodical Press (Fédération Internationale de la Presse Périodique)
Firewall A software package which typically restricts access for users to certain parts of a computer network. Web publishers use firewalls as a security device to stop users from being able to change web pages or access sensitive parts of an organisation's computer system.
Firewall Software Provides security for a computer or local network by preventing unauthorised access. It sits as a barrier between the web and your computer in order to prevent hacking, viruses or unapproved data transfer.
Five Download The download to own/rent service operated by UK terrestrial broadcaster Five. User's download the Five Download library manager, which protects the downloaded content, and can then purchase single episodes of the listed series, or purchase an entire season.
Flash is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macrmedia.
Flash Impression The total number of requests made for pages holding Flash-based content by Users of that site in the period being measured.
Flat Bed Letterpress design in which the type rests on a flat surface while a roller inks the surface and presses the paper to it.
Flat-Plate Antenna Flat (usually square) antenna used instead of a dish. Operates by adding together the signal from an array of collectors.
Flexographic Relief printing using flexible rubber or plastic plates.
FM (Press) Abbreviation for Facing Matter, a press advertisement position which faces editorial text ('matter'), regarded by many advertisers as more effective than positions which face other advertisements. It is therefore often (though not always) sold at a premium.
FM (Radio) Frequency Modulation. The waveband on which most 'contemporary hit' stations broadcast, and the waveband on which the vast majority of licences are now awarded. Also known as VHF.
FMS Demographic acronym used for female main shoppers
Focus Group A qualitative research method consisting of an informal discussion of a given topic by a selection of respondents under the guidance of a skilled moderator.
Footprint The earth coverage area of a transmission from a satellite. The strength of the signal weakens away from the centre and can be compensated for by using a larger receiving dish.
Format Shifting Copying of content from one form of storage to another (for example, from a CD to an MP3 Player).
Formula Model A type of mathematical model used to evaluate media schedules.
Frame Used by Route to describe the physical housing or border of an advertising space with its own distinct visibility. (I.E. Adjacent displays on a bus shelter count as two frames as they have differing visibility. Back to back displays are again two frames. A scrolling/rotating/digital unit counts as a single frame)
Frames Web pages which have been split into two or more screens which can be scrolled separately.
Franchise The right to install and operate a cable system in a given area, awarded by the Cable Authority and the DTI.
Free To Air The term used to describe any TV or radio channels that are broadcast over an unencrypted signal.
FreeSat British digital satellite television platform developed by the BBC and ITV plc.
Freesheet A local newspaper which is distributed free-of-charge, usually weekly.
Freeview Freeview is a Digital TV platform service that allows viewing of digital TV channels via your TV aerial and a Freeview set-top box.
Freeware Computer software that can be downloaded from the Internet or distributed by other means to users that has no charge for usage.
Frequency The number of times the target audience has an opportunity to see/hear the campaign expressed over a period of time.
Frequency Distribution groups. The percentage of the sample in each of a number of discrete groups. The total will add to 100%
Frequency Of Insertion The number of times the advertisement appears.
Frequency Of Reading Number of issues of a publication seen or looked at - e.g. 'On average the respondent reads or looks at the publication "almost always" (3 out of 4 issues)'.
Frequency Weights Response functions attempt to identify a relationship between the number of Opportunities To See insertions in a schedule and the resulting effectiveness of the advertising. To do this, values - I.e. Weights - are put on the different numbers of opportunities to see insertions in the schedule; hence response functions are also known as Frequency Weights.
FRIPI Abbreviation of First Reading in Publication Interval.
Frugging Fund raising under the guise of research.
FRY Abbreviation of First Reading Yesterday.
FSS Fixed Service Satellite. A term used for satellite in a fixed orbital position providing telecommunications services.
FSS Band Portion of the Ku-band (see cable & satellite) frequencies intended for business use but now the main satellite TV band.
FTP File Transfer protocol: used to transfer data from one computer to another over the Internet, or through a network. FTP is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol (such as the Internet or an intranet). There are two computers involved in an FTP transfer: a server and a client.
Fusion Statistical technique of combining data of two or more surveys.
Gabor Granger The Gabor Granger method is a method to determine the price for a new product or service.
Gatefold Multi-page press advertisement, typically on heavier weight paper than the rest of the publication, which consists of pages which are joined together, normally at left and/or right edges (though vertical gatefolds are not unheard-of) and open out to produce a large format which is much wider than it is deep.
General Packet Radio System GPRS refers to the technology that allows a mobile phone user to have a permanent connection to the Internet.
Geodemographics A census-based classification system used in media and product target marketing. Geo-demographic classifiers such as A.C.O.R.N., Mosaic and Super Profiles (amongst others) cross-tabulate household census data with data on the consumption of goods and services. Using techniques such as cluster analysis, they are able to produce multi-segmented analyses of consumption of these products and services. Such analyses are considerably more detailed than most other targeting systems and are often used in direct marketing programmes, the siting of store outlets, poster campaigns, etc.
Geographical IP Analysis The percentages by country established for a given metric such as Unique Users.
Geostationary Orbit Orbit used by TV satellite at a height of 22,250 miles, in which satellites make an orbit in 24 hours, remaining fixed relative to the earth's surface.
Geotargeting The process of only showing adverts to people on a website and in search engines based on their physical location. This could be done using advanced technology that knows where a computer is located or by using the content of website to determine what a
GHI or GHR Guaranteed Home Impressions or Guaranteed Home Ratings packages are selections of TV spots offered to advertisers on the basis that the seller of the airtime guarantees that the predicted audience level will be delivered.
Ghost The name given to a shadowy or weak TV picture image.
GIF The simplest graphical format for ads to be show in.
GPRS General Packet Radio Service is a method of transferring data between a mobile device to a central server.
GPS Global Positioning Systems is a fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System using a constellation of satellites that transmit precise microwave signals.
GPS Tracking Method of tracking poster audiences using Global Positioning Systems.
Graphic Banners A graphic mobile ad represented by a banner featuring an image. Similar to a web banner but with lower size constraints (See Banner).
Gravure Recesses on a cylinder are filled with ink and the surplus is removed with a blade. The paper contacts the cylinder and "lifts" the ink from the recesses.
Green Button Green Button ‘Bookable' advertising, available on Sky plaform, is a service which allows viewers to easily watch and access extended - or ‘long form' - advertising.
Gross Audience The gross audience represents the total number of people who watch a programme at all I.e. reach
Gross Coverage The un-duplicated sum of OTS
Gross Impacts The gross number of opportunities to see an advertisement
Gross OTS The un-duplicated sum of OTS
Gross Rating Points Impacts expressed as a percentage of the population being measured. One Rating Point equals one percent of the population
Group In radio this term refers to when spots are booked across a number of stations together as a single unit. Each station in the group has an identical spot plan. A group might include all stations in a brand, stations in a specific region or stations with a similar target audience.
Group Discussion A qualitative research method consisting of an informal discussion of a given topic by a selection of respondents under the guidance of a skilled moderator.
Grouped Titles Technique The technique allows much larger numbers of titles to be included in the survey than with traditional research methods.
GRP Abbreviation of Gross Rating Points.
GSM Abbreviation of Global System for Mobile Communications.
Guest viewing Guest viewing is measured by asking the visitors in a panel home to register their presence ( like panel members) by using a special guest button on the hand-set . Because the research company doesn't know anything about them, they are also asked to give basic demographics (sex and age).
Gutter In press media, that part of a printed page which is closest to the spine of a publication, outside the normal area of 'live matter'. Advertisements will sometimes be 'bled into the gutter', meaning that their printed area will extend into the gutter (to ensure the contiguity of two sides of a double page spread, for instance).
Half Page Display Vertical or horizontal half page of advertising.
Half tone A method of reproducing a black and black photograph or illustration by representing various shades of grey as a series of black and black dots.
Hammocking Maximising the audience to a weak programme by scheduling it between two strong programmes.
Hands Free A devise that enables a mobile phone to be used in a car without the user holding the phone.
Hardware Physical devices that digital content can be downloaded to, eg televison, computer, set top box, disc players, mobile devices etc.
HD High definition/Hi-Def. A set of standards to deliver broadcast, internet, or optical disc allowing significantly better resolutions, typicaly at a minimum standard of resolution of 1280x720 to a 'full HD' standard of 1920x1080p.
HD see HDTV
HD-DVD High density optical disc format for domestic use. Developed by Toshiba as a rival to the Blu-Ray Disc, now obsolete.
HDMI A compact audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed digital data
HDTV High definition television. The 1,125-, 1,080- and 1,035-line interlace and 720 and 1,080-line progressive formats in a 16:9 aspect ratio. Officially a format is high definition if it has at least twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of the standard signal being used.
Head of Household The most senior member of a household. The precise definition can vary from survey to survey.
Headend The central point on earth for the reception, origination and processing for cable transmission of signals meant for cablevision distribution.
Heat-set Drying of ink on paper using heat.
Heavy Listener People who watch above-average amounts of TV or listen to the above-average amounts of radio are often referred to as Heavy Viewers or Heavy Listeners.
Heavy User People who buy, use or consume above-average quantities of given products or services.
Heavy Viewer People who watch above average amounts of TV.
High Definition TV High Definition Television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems.
Hit A single file on a page downloaded by a visitor to a website. A request for an HTML page with three graphic images will result in four hits for the log: one for the HTML file and one for each of the graphic image files. While a hit is a meaningful measure of how much traffic a server handles, it can be a misleading indicator of how many pages are being looked at.
Hologram A three-dimensional photograph or illustration, created with an optical process that uses lasers.
Home Media Server A networked storage device in the home used to store music, video and picture files for distribution to hardware attatched to a home network. Also known as Digital Media Server or Home Hub.
Home Page The first place you arrive at when visiting the web. It is possible to establish any WWW address as a default home page within your web browser so that you will always start your travels from this point.
Home Shopping Home shopping refers to any purchasing made from home.
Homes Connected The total number of households that have been connected to a cable TV network.
Homes Passed Homes that could easily and inexpensively be connected to a cable network because the feeder cable is nearby.
Horn Antenna using an enlarged feedhorn and no reflector.
Host A computer that allows many services to be provided on a single network.
Hot spotting The ability to add hyperlinks to objects in a video that enable viewers to tag a product or service. Hot spotting can be used as a direct response mechanic in internet video.
Hours of Transmission Amount of time a television station broadcasts for. The total for a day/week may vary by region.
Hours of Viewing The amount of television watched by a particular audience category. Usually expressed as an average - for example average daily hours viewed in January. Hours of viewing may be expressed in hours and minutes, or in hours and fractions of hours - so 1.25 could mean 1 hour 25 minutes, or 1 and a quarter hours.
Household A group of people who live together and whose food and other household expenses are managed as one unit.
Household Penetration Portion of total households reached within a geographical area by a periodical (newspaper, magazine). Computed by dividing circulation by the number of households in that area.
Housewife The member of the household (male or female) who is solely or mainly responsible for the household duties. There is always one housewife per household.
HTML HyperText Mark-Up Language, the language used to write a world wide web document.
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol, used extensively by World Wide Web. Another of the many Internet Protocols.
HTTPS Hyper Text Transfer Protocol with Secure Sockets Layer, which is used for safe Internet browsing.
Hulu Hulu is a website offering ad-supported streaming video of TV shows and movies from NBC, Fox, ABC, and many other networks and studios. Attempted launch in the UK abandoned in April 2010 after conversations with broadcasters collapsed.
Hurdle Question Also threshold or general filter. The non time-related filter question screening certain information as in or out at the beginning of an interview.
HVB Secondary headend used at a remote part of a large cable system and connected to the headend by a supertrunk. Operates as a new start.
Hybrid Set Top Box A single set top box that will access Digital TV and download on-demand progamming.
HyperText HyperText Markup Language (see HTML)
IAA International Advertising Association. Connects advertising associations from all over the world. Acts as an industry educator and knowledge transfer facilitator.
IAB Internet Advertising Bureau (UK), Interactive Advertising Bureau (USA), Interactive Advertising Bureau (Europe)
IAF-Ipsos InterActive Forum- cost effective way of managing and running online proprietary panels for clients.
IBA Independent Broadcasting Authority - Body controlling commercial broadcasting until January 1991. New body: ITC
IBC Inside Back Cover - placement for advertising within a publication
Ident A short 'sponsor identification' film shown at the beginning and end of a section of a TV programme, used to credit the sponsor with sponsorship of the programme.
IDTV An Integrated Digital Television (IDTV or iDTV) set is a television set with a built in digital tuner, which does away with the need for a set top box for converting those signals for reception on a television.
IF (Intermediate Frequency) Signal in cable between LNB and receiver. Also receiver's tuning frequency. Standard is 950-1,750MHz. The IF Shifter is device in LNB cable to enable reception of frequency bands not intended for the LNB.
IFC Inside Front Cover - placement for advertising within a publication
Illumination Lighting a poster.
ILR Independent Local Radio. Generic term for commercial radio stations. term referring to the commercial radio stations, controlled by the ITC.
IM Instant Messaging
Image Ad An image on a mobile internet site with an active link that can be clicked on by the subscriber. Once clicked the user is redirected to a new page, another mobile internet site or other destination where an offer resides.
Image Resolution The number of pixels in an image.
iMP Abbreviation of Interactive Media Player (developed by the BBC).
Impacts The impacts achieved by a campaign are the total number of times that campaign is heard. Calculated by a campaign's reach in thousands x OTH.
Impressions Once misleadingly interchangeable with either impacts or OTS, but now falling into disuse except in buying or selling TV airtime, as in 'guaranteed home impressions' (GHI).
Impressions (Online) Impressions are the new currency for buying advertising banner space on the web. Put simply an impression is achieved when something is seen by a user. These files could be adverts or whole pages of an online publication. Typically publishers talk of a site having a number of page impressions per week / month. Other webjargon for page impressions includes page views.
Impulse Pay Per View Also known as IPPV. A pay-per-view facility that allows subscribers to purchase programmes without the need to order it in advance.
IMS Interactive Market Systems
In Home Viewing Where the TV audience is restricted to people who are watching TV in a private house.
In Skin is the name of the company which developed online TV ad format. InSkin™ wraps itself fully around the content delivering high impact for the advertiser without interrupting the content itself.
Incentive A gift to the respondent for participating in a research project.
Index The index measures the efficiency of a particular time period/programme/commercial break in reaching a certain sub-category audience.
Infomercial An advertorial that contains a lot of information.
Informant Also interviewee, respondent. The person providing the information to the interviewer/researcher.
Information Superhighway Term used to describe on-line services such as the Internet and Interactive TV.
Inline A browser that allows certain media or file formats to be directly supported so eliminating the need of a helper function.
InnoScreen InnoScreen is Ipsos' global concept screening system that helps manufacturers reduce risk inherent to new product development by prioritising concepts for further development based on market potential and providing an action plan for each concept tested.
Insertion Order A printed order to run an ad campaign, including details such as start and end dates, the CPM, the total cost, the name of the site the ads will run on, which advertiser the ads refer to etc.
Inserts An insert is a separately prepared printed piece inserted into a publication. These can be loose, bound or gummed in. Acceptable paper specifications, weight and size may be given. Prices are given per thousand inserts, or as a fixed charge for the full circulation run for the magazine.
Instant Messaging Sending messages and chatting with friends or colleagues in real-time when you are both online via a special application.
Integrated Digital Television see IDTV
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Highspeed dial-up connections to the internet over normal phone lines.
Intelsat The inter-governmental association of the post and telecommunications ministries (PTTs) of 109 Western nations responsible for sponsoring a network of communications satellites.
Intensity (Of Reading) Degree of thoroughness with which a publication is read. Can be estimated via Page Traffic or picture scale illustrating the proportion claimed to have been read. The latter has, in the past, been used experimentally in the NRS, but is no longer in use.
Interactive Two-way communications between homes and the headend. This facility opens up the possibility for such services as home banking, home security and home shopping.
Interactive Advert is most commonly used to describe advertising content that sits behind the red button on digital TV platforms.
Interactive Advertising All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, email, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials. Interactive ads have an overlay that prompts the viewer to 'press red' for additional information, a sample etc.
Interactive Research A generic term to describe using the Internet as a research tool.
Interactive television A combination of television with interactive content and enhancements. Interactive television provides better, richer entertainment and information, blending traditional TV-watching with the interactivity of a personal computer. Programming can include richer graphics, one-click access to Web sites through TV Crossover Links, electronic mail and chats, and online commerce through a back channel
Interactive TV Impression A request made for a site's Interactive TV content by Users of that site in the period being measured.
Interface The software that allows a user to operate an application.
Interlaced In TV, interlaced scanning is a method for displaying video by ‘painting’ each line of the frame alternatively upon the screen. Progessive scanning is a method of displaying video by ‘painting’ each line of the frame in sequence.
International Roaming The ability to use a mobile phone outside its home country.
Internet A global network of computer networks which contains a huge variety of information entered by users. Users gain access to the internet via their computer and modem. Information is in the form of 'pages' or 'sites' which have their own individual address or URL. Users usually type these addresses into their browser to gain access to sites.
Internet Protocol Television Internet Protocol Television, or IPTV, uses a two-way digital broadcast signal that is sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection, along with a set top box programmed with software that can handle viewer requests to access media sources. A television is connected to the set top box that handles the task of decoding the IP video and converts it into standard television signals.
Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) The use of a broadband connection to stream digital television over the internet to subscribed users.
Internet Relay Chat Also known as IRC. This software allows Internet users worldwide to connect with other users and enables them to chat in real time by typing messages.
Internet Research This covers both researching the Internet itself (e.g. measuring Internet penetration), as well as using the Internet as a research tool.
Internet Service Provider (ISP) A company which provides users with the means to connect to the internet. Eg: AOL, Tiscali, Yahoo!
Internet TV Television programmes available on the internet.
Interruptive Formats Online advertising formats that appear on users' screens on top of web content (and sometimes before web page appears) and range from static, one-page splash screens to full-motion animated advertisements. See also overlay, pop-up
Interstitial An ad that loads between web pages without having been requested by the visitor between two content pages. Also known as splash pages and transition ads. See also Rich Media.
Interstitial Ads Which appear between two content pages. Also known as splash pages and transition ads. See also Rich Media.
Intranet A private network inside a company or organisation that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public internet, but that is only for internal use. As the internet has become more popular many of the tools used on the internet are being used in private networks, for example, many companies have web servers that are available only to employees. Note that an intranet may not actually be an internet -- it may simply be a network.
Intrusion Index The Intrusion Index is a measure used by Ipsos-ASIs to assess the efficiency of TV advertising at generating recall.
Inventory The total number of impressions that a website has to sell over a period of time.
iOS iOS is a mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple Inc.
IP Internet Protocol. A protocol system responsible for addressing and sending packets of data across the Internet.
IP address All computers on the internet must have a unique address. The address is comparable to a phone number. IP addresses are typically shown in blocks of three numbers. MediaTel's IP address in 193.133.103.1
IPA Institute Of Practitioners in Advertising - The industry body and professional institute of UK advertising agencies, the IPA acts as spokesman for its members, representing them on issues of common concern and speaking on their behalf in negotiations with media bodies, government departments and unions. Secondly, it contributes to the effective operation of member companies through its advisory, training and information services.- See IPA
iPad A tablet computer designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc.
iPlayer see BBC iPlayer
iPod A Portable Media Player (developed by Apple Computer).
IPTV Internet protocol television. The distribution of video and TV services via a broadband connection using Internet technology. IPTV is commonly associated with the delivery of on-demand TV, where viewers access programming as and when they want without waiting for broadcast schedules.
IRD Satellite receiver with a (videocrypt) decoder built in.
ISBA Incorporated Society of British Advertisers - Represents the interests of advertisers on matters political, media and related. Main activities are lobbying for the freedom of commercial communication and offering practical advice and consultations to members on marketing communications.
ISBA Region ISBA define the UK by 13 different regions - Border, Central Scotland, East of England, Lancashire, London, Midlands, North East, Northern Ireland, Northern Scotland, South West, Southern, Wales and West and Yorkshire.
ISDN Integrated services digital network. Allows data to be transmitted at high speed over the public telephone network. ISDN operates from the Basic Rate of 64 kbits/sec to the Primary Rate of 2 Mbps (usually called ISDN-30 as it comprises 30 Basic Rate channels).
Island Ad A square or rectangular ad embedded in, or surrounded by, the content of a web page.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) Any organisation offering connections to the internet, or part of it. eg AOL, MSN, Orange
Issue Recognition In a readership survey, the measurement of reading by using issues of the publication, stripped issues, front covers, and/or table of contents.
Issue Specific Audience In readership research, the audience to a specific issue of a publication.
Issue Specific Bulk Sales Copies sold in bulk on a one-off or irregular basis usually for onward free distribution to individuals.
ITC Independent Television Commission - statutory body controlling commercial broadcasting from January 1991.
Itemised Billing The facility to list all call charges and timings on a phone invoice.
ITLG JICRIT's Information Technology Liaison Group
ITV Interactive television describes any number of efforts to allow viewers to interact with television content as they view. It is sometime called interactive TV, iTV, idTV or ITV (not to be confused with the British Independent Television network).
iTV Interactive television describes any number of efforts to allow viewers to interact with television content as they view. It is sometime called interactive TV, iTV, idTV or ITV (not to be confused with the British Independent Television network).
ITV and TV Households TV Households are those owning or renting a working television (currently 97% of all UK homes). ITV Households must be able to receive one or more ITV channels.
ITV Player ITV's catch-up TV service
ITV Region The UK is divided into fourteen geographical areas, served by regional Channel 3 ITV licensees, and the one licensee which provides the national breakfast-time service. Additionally Channel 4/S4C transmit across the network. The country is also divided into BBC editorial regions which slightly differ from the ITV regions
ITVA Independent Television Association - A body formed by commercial television companies to represent their mutual interests.
J-ET UK Radio industry's online trading system. Developed and managed by MediaTel Group under contract to the Radio Centre and IPA via JICRIT ltd.
J17 Audio de-emphasis system used on some satellites
Jack Motor and feedback system to drive a motorised multi-satellite antenna.
JAVA Programming language for the Internet created by Sun Microsystems which enables extra interactivity to be built into Web pages. Pundits predict it's the most significant development for the Net since the invention of the Web. http://java.sun.com
JCN J-ET Campaign Number - unique number to identify a radio campaign booked through J-ET, the radio industry's booking and trading system.
JIC Abbreviation of Joint Industry Committee. The JIC model of commissioning and controlling media surveys stands in contrast to the model of conducting media studies as proprietary research.
JICIMS Joint Industry Committee for Internet Measurement Systems , dissolved in 2008 and replaced by UKOM. This joint committee was made up by the IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau) and the IPA (Institute of Practitioners in Advertising)
JICNARS Joint Industry Committee for National Readership Surveys. This was replaced by NRS Ltd. in 1992.
JICPOPS In the UK, abbreviation for Joint Industry Committee for Population Statistics.
JICRAR Joint Industry Committee for Radio Audience Research. Replaced by RAJAR in 1993.
JICREG Regional newspaper joint industry research conducted under the auspices of the Newspaper Society.
JICRIT Joint Industry Commercial Radio IT Futures Group - An Electronic Accountability and Booking System for the radio industry, a joint venture between the IPA and the Radio Centre.
JICTAR Joint Industry Committee for Television Advertising Research - committee representing advertisers, agencies and programme companies. JICTAR was formed in 1960 to replace TARAC, and has now itself been replaced by BARB.
JICWEBS The Joint Industry Committee for Web Standards – the UK industry body which regulates the evolution of web measurement. Members of this body are drawn from associations that represent the new media, publishing and advertising industries.
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. An internet standard for compression algorithms for digitizing still photographic images. JPEG compression ratios may range from 10:1 to 80:1, but this involves a continuous trade-off between image quality and speed of delivery and storage capacity.
Kerning Printing expression referring to the spacing between the letters of a word. Of importance, for instance, in double page spread advertisements in which headlines cross the gutters of the pages on which the ad. is printed.
Key Driver Analysis Key Driver Analysis is a statistical technique used for measuring the impact of underlying factors on the overall view of a product or service.
Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are a key set of performance based criteria used between companies to help define and measure progress to an agreed target.
Keyword A word typed into a search engine in order to find information pertaining to that word. Advertisers pay so that when the keyword is searched for, their ad comes up.
Keyword marketing The purchase of keywords (or ‘search terms’) by advertisers in search listings. See also PPC.
Keyword Search Revenues Fees advertisers pay to retrieve the hyperlink opportunity to the advertiser's site or to serve an ad related to the user's search.
Keyword Searching On the internet, a search method for a relevant website using a key word.
Kiosk Electronic devices that are installed to be used by general public.
KU-Band Signal frequency range (10.700-18.000GHz) used for most satellite TV in Europe.
LAN Local Area Network - A group of computers connected together, which are at one physical location.
LAN (Local Area Network) A group of computers connected together, which are at one physical location.
Landing Page (Jump Page) The page or view to which a user is directed when they click on an active link embedded in a banner, web page, email or other view. A click through lands the user on a jump page. Sometimes the Landing Page is one stage upstream from what would ordinarily
Large Rectangle Ad A 300 pixel x 250 pixel advert.
Last Issue Readership Estimate of the number of people who claimed to read or look at any issue of a publication during its Last Issue Period.
Last Issue/Publication Period Last Issue Period is also known as Last Publication Period.
Latency Latency and bandwidth are the two factors that influence the speed of Internet connection.
LCD Abbreviation of Liquid Crystal Display. This technology is used in many items such as mobile phones, watches and computers and is used to display information on a screen.
LDO Local Delivery Operator. The type of franchise awarded by the ITC after the cable franchise authorising local delivery cable to MVDS services.
Lead When a visitor registers, signs up for, or downloads something on an advertiser’s site. A lead might also comprise a visitor filling out a form on an advertiser’s site.
Lead Time Usually, period of time before advertisement appears which gives last date for supply of copy material (also known as 'copy date') or by which booking of space or airtime should be actioned ('booking lead time').
Leased Access Channels A category of cable channel (particularly in USA) made available by the local operator on a commercial basis rather than as a free community service as will normally be the case with access channels.
Letterpress Printing from images with a raised surface which impress on the paper.
LHP Abbreviation for Left Hand Page.
Life cycle or lifestage Lifestyle analysis system based on the concept that people have different aspirations and tastes at different stages of their lives: life cycle groups might include 'Dependent', 'Empty Nesters', 'Pre-family'. There are various proprietary systems which take this general form.
Lifestyle data (TGI) Since 1984, the TGI has also been collecting information on attitudes and values held by respondents. Some 200 'statements' are currently included. These cover a number of consumer areas (food, drink, health & diet, personal appearances, DIY, travel & holidays, finance, durables, the environment, sponsorship, the media) and more general attitudes to life (luxury and status, self-perception and motivations). The statements require a simple response.
Lifestyle Research The investigation of the impact that people's lifestyles have on their attitudes and behaviour.
Lifestyles Psychographic Groups created with advertisers' needs in mind.
Light Listener/Viewer Opposite to heavy listener/viewer.
Lightbox Poster site, most often a 4- or 6-sheet, which is 'back-illuminated'. Posters used in this type of site normally have to be printed on special material, eg vinyl.
Linage Type of classified advertisement in a newspaper, consisting of lines of bold and plain type only, un-'boxed' and with no embellishments such as logos, illustrations, etc.
Linear viewing Television service where the viewer has to watch a scheduled TV program at the particular time it’s offered, and on the particular channel it's presented on.
Link A link is a form of advertising on a website, in an email or online newsletter, which, when clicked on, refers the visitor to an advertiser’s website or a specific area within their website.
List broker In direct mail campaign planning, an agent who sells lists of sales prospects, classified into groupings.
Listener RAJAR measures a listener as any individual who listens to a station for at least five minutes a week.
Listenergraphic A listenergraphic describes the way an individual consumes radio together with their demographic details. 
Listening On the RAJAR scale listening is recorded in terms of 15 minute segments and is defined as at least 5 minutes listening within a particular segment. (Between midnight and 0600 listening is recorded in 30 minute segments.)
Lithographic Ink is applied selectively to printing plate by chemically treating image areas to accept ink and non-image areas to accept water.
Live Viewing of a programme or commercial at the exact time of its broadcast.
Live viewing Viewing of a programme or commercial at the actual time of transmission, it excludes any time-shifted viewing (i.e. watched via video or hard disk recording)
LNB (Low Noise Down Block Converter) A device which converts satellite broadcast frequencies ( usually very high frequency ) to a lower frequency. This lower frequency is then fed to a receiver via co-axial cable.
Location Based Services (LBS) A range of services that are provided to mobile subscribers based on the geographical location of their handsets within their cellular network.
Location Free TV Sony have launched Location Free which has base station that plugs into your home DVD and PVR/DVR and broadband and then streams the signal to laptops, computers or Sony PSPs via wifi. In addition Sony produce 'a location free television' which is a screen that displays a signal from your main television up to 100ft away.
Locator An advertisement or service through which an advertiser’s bricks and mortar location can be identified based on proximity of the consumer or their preferred location) can be LBS or user defined postal code).
Log Files A record of all the hits a web server has received over a given period of time.
Login The process of identifying yourself on an online system. Generally a two stage process involving the input of your username followed by your password.
Login Name The "username" or name of your account used for identification purposes.
Long Tail The niche strategy of businesses, such as Amazon.com or Netflix, that sell a large number of unique items, each in relatively small quantities. The distribution and inventory costs of these businesses allow them to realize significant profit out of selling small volumes of hard-to-find items to many customers, instead of only selling large volumes of a reduced number of popular items. The group comprising a large number of "non-hit" items is the demographic called the Long Tail.
Longitudinal Analysis Analysis of two or more sets of data from the same respondents over time.
Loopthrough Pair of output and input connections on a receiver to allow external equipment to be inserted in the TV signal path.
Loose Inserts Single item loosely inserted between two pages of magazine
LoveFilm LoveFilm (official typeset LOVEFiLM) is a British subsidiary of Amazon.com which provides online video rental (rental-by-mail) and resale of DVD-Video, Blu-ray, and video game console Disc, as well as on-demand video streaming over the internet of movies
Lower 3rd ads Lower 3rd advertising is one of the less standard formats deployed around TV content online; you may have noticed something similar on You Tube. They appear a few seconds into the video and user can click on them to expand the ad and/or explore the product being promoted. The user is then redirected to the advertiser’s website or microsite.
LTV Lifetime value
Luminance Part of the TV signal carrying the brightness information of the picture.
M-commerce A term referring to mobile commerce which is the ability to conduct monetary transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled mobile phone.
Mac Multiplexed Analogue Component. Group of TV broadcast formats devised especially for satellite.
Macro A small program created to simplify a repetitive task. For example a desktop package like Microsoft Excel will record your actions in a file and allow you to replay the instruction over and over again.
Macro Region Area created by the aggregation of one or more ITV areas. A detailed breakdown of BARB-reported macros regions is provided in the BARB Reference Manual
Magazine Page Exposure Studies Research designed to estimate how often pages in magazines are read and the value to advertisers of that Repeat Reading. See also MPX.
Maiden Outdoor Maiden Outdoor Advertising is one of the largest companies in the UK selling advertising space on posters. They were established in 1925 and deal principally in large format roadside billboards, although you will also see their poster panels at railway stations, shopping centres and certain supermarket stores
Mailing List A discussion group whose messages are distributed by e-mail.
Mailsort Mailsort is Royal Mail unique address coding scheme to allow business customers to automatically direct mail.
Market Landscaping Market Landscaping is a high-end analytical approach, developed by Ipsos for their Technology clients, that provides a detailed, consumer-perceived picture of the currents marketplace.
Market Penetration Penetration refers to the proportion-usually expressed as a percentage of the target market or target group reached, hence the term Market Penetration.
Market Share The percentage of hours that a station or channel accounts for within its transmission area.
Market Weight Value given to a section of the population based on actual or probable product consumption/purchase, when assessing media vehicles.
Market Weights Different values put on consistent parts of the Target Market in line with how important each of them is judged to be by (or to) the advertiser.
Master Antenna Television MATV Systems are networks which involve the installation of a large aerial which is linked to individual households by means of a cable connection. This service is normally provided for apartment blocks or small communities.
Mastering The name given to the process of transferring videotape material onto master optical disk that is then used to produce video disks or CD-ROMs.
Masthead Cards A Masterhead card is the reproduction of a publication's "mast head" in the form of a show card which is used as a recall-aid in the interview.
Material Specifications This is the form in which artwork is acceptable from an advertiser. Failure to supply correct artwork may result in an extra charge or the loss of the agency/publishers' discount. This will be different for mono and colour advertisements, and may be different for adverts appearing on covers.
Matter Editorial content of a newspaper or magazine.
MATV OR Master Antennae TV Set A MATV or master antennae TV set is a set receiving a TV signal by wire from a communal aerial on a multi-occupancy building, such as a block of flats.
Mbps Megabits per second.
MEAL Media Expenditure Analysis Ltd - was set up in 1967 by John McBride and was the first computerised monitoring system in the UK. In 1991 it merged with The Media Register to form Register-MEAL.
Mechanism Application of printing plates to paper.
Media Brand Print, broadcast and other media, which use various platforms using the same brand name- be it television, online, mobile and/ or print.
Media Extender A digital media receiver (DMR), also commonly referred to as a media extender, media streamer, or digital media adapter (DMA), is a home entertainment device that can connect to a home network to retrieve digital media files (such as music, pictures, or video) from a personal computer or other networked media server and play them back on a home theater system or TV.
Media Group Term used for a general category of media vehicles, such as popular newspapers, women's weekly magazines, etc.
Media Meshing Media meshing is the process of using one of the media, such as a blog or a website, to enhance the experience of another medium, such as a newspaper article or a fictional television program.
Media Plan A plan of the advertising campaign which details which advertisements are to be used, using which media, on which dates, at what time of day and the number to be used etc.
Media Player Special computer software which allows the playing of audio or video files.
Media Register The Media Register was launched as an offshoot of The Television and Press Register, who were providing the industry with copies of commercials and press ads. It merged in 1991 with MEAL to form Register-MEAL.
Media Schedule A plan of the advertising campaign which details which advertisements are to be used, using which media, on which dates, at what time of day and the number to be used etc.
Media Streamer A digital media receiver (DMR), also commonly referred to as a media extender, media streamer, or digital media adapter (DMA), is a home entertainment device that can connect to a home network to retrieve digital media files (such as music, pictures, or video) from a personal computer or other networked media server and play them back on a home theater system or TV.
Media Vehicle Any advertisement-carrying medium, such as TV, a magazine, poster site, etc. as TV, a magazine, poster site, etc.
Media Weight Value applied to the readership of a publication, to express its worth in terms of any or all of: Reader Traffic, Reproduction, Editorial Environment , Circulation Trends.
Media Weights Different values put on different titles in line with how important each of them is judged to be to the advertiser.
Mediator Ipsos offer a complete research service for those clients wishing to develop a deep and rapid relationship with their customers or competitors' customers.
Mega-rear An advertisement site which covers the whole area of the back of a double-deck bus. Normally such advertisements are painted onto the vehicles.
Memory Effects Differences in response levels resulting from the respondent's ability to remember something he or she is asked about- such as reading events, when products were purchased etc.
Memory Prompts When visual aids are used to prompt the respondent's memory.
Meta tags/ descriptions HTML tags that identify the content of a web page for the search engines.
Meta-tags HTML tags that identify the content of a web page for the search engines.
Meter Electronic device mainly used in television research.
Microsite A multipage advertising website, typically consisting of 3-5 pages, accessed via clicking through from the original ad.
Mid-market Socio-demographic term primarily applied to people, products, services, campaigns or media which fall into, or have a bias towards, the C1 or C2 social grade grouping.
Middleware Software that connects two applications so allowing data transfer to take place.
MIDI Abbreviation of Musical Instrument Digital Interface. This refers to any interface that is used to connect musical instruments to computers.
Migration Migration is the activity of a mobile phone user transferring their mobile number and occasionally their equipment to another provider.
MMA The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) is the premier global non profit association that strives to stimulate the growth of mobile marketing and its associated technologies. The MMA is an action oriented association designed to clear obstacles to market
MMS Media Monitoring Services Ltd - owned by AC Nielsen
Mobile Data Services Includes SMS, MMS, WAP, LBS and video.
Mobile Internet Advertising A form of advertising via mobile phones or other wireless devices (excluding laptops). This type of mobile advertising includes mobile web banner ads, mobile internet sponsorship and interstitials (which appear while a requested mobile web page is loading
Mobile Internet Connection Any Internet connection using a mobile phone or other hand held devices such as PDAs.
Mobile TV Television available on mobile smartphone devices, through specific apps or browser streaming.
Mobisode A short made for mobile episode of a broadcast TV programme, specially scripted and shot for viewing on a small mobile handset screen.
Mobitest GPS tracking device used by Ipsos MediaCT for measuring out of home audiences in Great Britain.
Modem A device for communicating between computers using telephone lines or cable connections.
Monitored Free Distribution Copies that are supplied in bulk to distribution points on an every issue basis. Copies can be left out for free pick up by individuals or handed out individually.
Mono Rates Black and white advertisements "displayed" to occupy a part or all of a page as specified by the publisher, rather than set in columns. Examples of sizes are: dps (double page spread), page, half, quarter, eighth, n cm x n cols, scc, (single column centimetre). These rates are ROP.
Monopole Type of poster site which consists of a pole-shaped structure; this type of site often rotates, for added impact.
More Group More Group, with its sister company Eller Media, comprise Clear Channel Outdoor, the world's largest outdoor advertising company. More Group and Eller Media are owned by Clear Channel Communications Inc., the publicly quoted US media company. More Group operates in the three main out-of-home media formats: Street Furniture, Billboard and Transit.
MOSAIC A proprietary Geodemographic classification system that is available for a number of European countries.
MP3 A computer file format that compresses audio files up to a factor of 12 from a .wav file.
MPEG File format used to compress and transmit video clips online.
MPU Multiple Purpose Units - A square online advert usually found embedded in a web page in a fixed placement. Called 'multiple purpose' as it is a flexible shaped blank 'canvas' in which you can serve flat or more interactive content as desired. See also Rich Media, Universal Advertising Package
MPX Magazine Exposure Studies designed to estimate how often pages in magazines are read and the value to advertisers of that Repeat Reading.
MRG Media Research Group
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network. The mobile phone number of the participating customer.
MSO Multiple Systems Operator, A cable running more than one system.
MSO (Multiple Systems Operator) Parent company of cable franchise operating company, eg. Telewest.
Multi -ITV Household To qualify a household must be able to receive more than one ITV station. Those stations do not have to be received on the same television. Thus a multi-ITV household may receive one ITV station on one set and another ITV station on a second TV set. Multi-ITV households are often referred to as dual channel households.
Multi screen A number of screens operating simultaneously
Multi-Channel Home Households that are capable of receiving broadcasts from either cable or satellite channels in addition to terrestrial channels.
Multi-feed Antenna system with two or more LNBs on a fixed dish to view more than one satellite,.
Multi-Stage Sampling The selection of a nationally representative sample may involve several stages of selection - Local Authorities at the first stage, wards at the second stage and individual addresses at the third stage.
Multicast A network restricted to subscribers so internet TV services have a guaranteed bandwidth
Multichannel A home that is equipped to receive TV channels other than analogue terrestrial or analogue cable, via Digital Satellite, Digital Cable or Digital Terrestrial.
Multimedia Generic term used to describe applications that can bring together a combination of media such as text, sound, graphics, animation and video.
Multipacks A term used to describe two or more magazines packaged or banded together as a unit.
Multiple Copy Sales Bulk Sales (sometimes referred to as ‘Multiple Copy Sales’) are copies sold in bulk to a third party usually for onward free distribution to individuals
Multiple Occurrances, Exclusion of The omission of multiple transmissions from a Top Programmes listing. For example, over the space of a year, a Top 50 could theoretically consist entirely of Coronation Street if multiple occurrences were not excluded. Exclusion causes only the top rating episode of a programme to appear in the list.
Multiple Purpose Units (MPU) A square online advert usually found embedded in a web page in a fixed placement. Called ‘multiple purpose’ as it is a flexible shaped blank ‘canvas’ in which you can serve flat or more interactive content as desired. See also Rich Media, Universal Adver
Multiplex A multiplex or mux is a group of TV channels that are mixed together (multiplexed) for broadcast over a digital TV channel and separated out again (demultiplexed) by the receiver.
Multiplex (Cinema) Multiplex is defined as a purpose-built complex with 5 or more screens.
Multiplex (Radio) A carrier of digital radio services. Digital development will begin with two national multiplexes - with one for the BBC and one for commercial services. All the national services are guaranteed places on these multiplexes.
Multiscreen (multi-screen) A number of screens operating simultaneously
Mux see Multiplex
MVDS. Microwave Video Distribution System. A television distribution service using microwave transmissions (high frequency wireless transmissions).
MVT Multivariate testing
NABS The charity for the marketing communications industry; a professional support service for everyone involved in advertising, media, marketing, sales, promotion, direct marketing, public relations and graphic design. NABS' helpline, job workshop, welfare support service and general information network help those in need, both in and out of work.
Narrowband An old cable television system with limited channel capacity - usually just four or six channels.
Narrowcasting Programmes designed for minority or special audiences. The concept has been used in the US to attract advertisers as a cost-effective way of reaching target audiences.
Natural Search Results The 'natural' search results that appear in a separate section (usually the main body of the page) to the paid listings. The results listed here have not been paid for and are ranked by the search engine (using spiders or algorithms according to relevancy to the term searched upon. See also spider, algorithm, SEO
Near Video on Demand A pay per view facility offered by digital television providers where a subscriber can request from a list of videos a movie with staggered start times (usually half to quarter-hour intervals).
Net Audience Net Audience is the estimate of the number of people who will have at least one opportunity to see or hear a programme or channel/station or an insertion in a given schedule or hear a commercial.
Net Coverage The proportion of a target group who have an opportunity to see or hear one or more advertisement, issue or spot.
Net Impacts The gross number of opportunities to see an advertisement.
Net OTS Opportunities To See the advertisements in a campaign.
Net TV Televisions which have the ability to dial up to the internet. Often, a manufacturer has integrated or offers a special set-top which permits the viewer to connect online over telephone wires.
Netflix An American provider of on-demand Internet streaming media available to North and South America, the Caribbean, United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands.
Netscape A software company who manufacture browsers and server software. Their browser paved the way for the opening up of the Internet to the mass market. Browsers include Netscape 3.0, Netscape Navigator, Netscape Communicator.
Network A National or regional station or channel offering common programmes through a series of transmitters or a group of stations or channels affiliated with each other for common programming, at certain times of day.
Network Audiences Network audiences are estimates of all BBC and/or all ITV viewing in the UK, or in a specified group of regions or areas.
Network TV Ratings Network TV ratings are the percentage of the Network universe viewing at the minute, or an average over the minutes of the period specified. The term is also applied to the TV ratings for any transmission that appears simultaneously in more than one ITV area. In that case the base is the unduplicated universe of the areas concerned.
New Media Generic term used to describe the digital publishing and multimedia sector.
News Media Association NMA - Trade association for regional, local and free newspapers. Activities: dealing with working terms and conditions and safe- guarding members' legal and commercial interests. Provides legal advice and training programmes for members.
Newsworks Newsworks is the marketing body for national newspapers, helping agencies and advertisers get the most out of newsbrands.
Next*TV Next* TV is the flagship of a generation of Ipsos products used to evaluate commercials.
NICAM Abbreviation of Near Instantaneous Amplitude Companding And Modulation. A system developed in the UK by the BBC used to transmit digital stereo audio as part of an analogue TV signal that is then decoded by Nicam compatible TV sets and video recorders.
Niche Channel A channel aimed at a niche market.
Niche Market A market that is closely defined as a relatively small number of individuals to be targeted.
NLRA Net Local Radio Areas - Small geographical units representing a combination of radio stations used to calculate a individual station TSA for Rajar. Defined in terms of postcode.
No go areas A term used in face to face interviewing to describe areas that are not suitable for interviewers to work.
Noise Disruptive electrical signals caused by electrical devices like power lines and radio transmitters.
Noise Figure Measure of the performance (noise contribution) of an LNB.
Nomogram Chart used to estimate Confidence Limits. A nomogram for one survey should not be used to estimate the confidence limits of other surveys.
Non-Rajar Station A station which is not part of the currently traded RAJAR survey. It might become part of the survey in the future or might  have historic data from earlier RAJAR periods.
Northern Ireland TGI Similar information now available for Northern Ireland based on a sample of 1,500 adults.
Notice An easy to understand written description of the information and data collection, storage, maintenance, access, security, disclosure and use policies and practices, as necessary and required of the entity collecting and using the information and data fro
Noting Score Average number of readers who claimed they noted a specific advertisement/type of advertisement/editorial item expressed as a percentage of the total readership. As in 'reading and noting' checks.
Now TV An internet television service owned by BSkyB launched in July 2012.  Service is available to watch via computer, various mobile devices, some game consoles and set-top boxes, with a Now TV branded box launched in July 2013.(wikipedia)
NPA Newspaper Publishers Association - Trade association for Britain's national daily and Sunday newspapers and the Evening Standard. Aims: to promote and protect national press interests. Activities include: promotion of the national press; monitoring and lobbying activities on UK and European legislation affecting the newspaper industry, especially on advertising, copyright, environmental and social areas; promotion of good practice in advertising; and, provision of accreditation services.
NRS National Readership Survey - A survey conducted under the auspices of NRS Ltd to provide industry estimates of the readership of over 200 major consumer publications.
NRS PADD National Readership Survey Print And Digital Data - A fusion of NRS print data and comScore digital data.
NS-SEC Abbreviation of National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification, the Government's classification system.
NTT (ABC) Normal Trade Terms
NVOD Near video on demand. Rapid access to program material on demand achieved by providing the same program on a number of channels with staggered start times. Many of the hundreds of TV channels soon to be on offer will be made up of NVOD services.
OA Abbreviation of Output Area, a geographical unit for which the Government's Census data are made available to users.
OB Outside Broadcast Unit Known as a “production truck”. In the US an OB unit is a truck containing a mobile TV production studio.
OBC Outside Back Cover - placement for advertising within a publication
Object Database Also known as ODB. A database that can manage complicated data such as audio and video images.
Occupational Groups Classification of social status, usually based on the occupation of the head of household.
OCR Optical Character Recognition. This allows a scanner to identify characters on a printed page and can save them as a text document.
OFCOM Ofcom is the independent regulator and competition authority for the UK communications industries, with responsibilities across television, radio, telecommunications and wireless communications services.
Off Portal Point of sale/access on the mobile network, but outside of the operator’s “walled garden”/portal/deck, where consumers can access/purchase information and mobile products/content/utilities.
Off-air Normal broadcast TV signals. A term often used to distinguish aerial reception from cable reception.
Off-peak Any airtime which is not peak airtime.
Offset Type of dish antenna with the focus and feed-horn below the centre of the dish.
OFTEL The original Office of Telecommunications. The licensing and monitoring body set up by the Telecommunications Act 1984. Has now been replaced by Ofcom.
Omnibus Surveys Quantitative surveys where the questionnaire is shared between clients. Omnibus surveys provide a cost-efficient means of achieving large samples particularly if only a limited number of questions are asked.
On Demand Services which can be accessed as required and at a time determined by the consumer, as opposed to a service (such as a TV programme) which is available at a time determined by the broadcaster.
On demand Content as soon as or whenever required.
On Portal Point of sale/access within the operator’s “walled garden”/portal/deck, where consumers can access/purchase information and mobile roducts/content/utilities.
On-line Shopping Purchasing from the Internet usually over a secure server. Also known as e-Commerce.
Online Directly controlled by or connected to a computer.
Online HD Is the delivery of High Definition streamed video media. This typically conforms to 720p standards where 720 represents 720 lines of vertical resolution and p stands for progressive scan.
Online Panels Panels of internet users recruited to carry out research studies online.
Online Research A generic term to describe using the Internet as a research tool.
OOA out of area (radio)
OOAA out of analogue area (rajar reporting)
OOH Out Of Home - All types of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home
Opportunities To See (OTS)/ Hear (OTH) Opportunities To see the advertisements in a campaign. The term "opportunity" recognises that while everyone who reads/ looks at an advertisement could see that advertisement, not everyone does so. In terms of poster, cinema and radio research OTS occurs when a person passes a poster site, when he/she sits in a cinema and when he/she finds him/herself listening to a radio station at a time when a given commercial is transmitted (OTH- opportunity to hear).
Opt In An individual has given a company permission to use his/her data for marketing purposes.
Opt Out An individual has stated that they do not want a company to use his/her data for marketing purposes.
Opt-In A unique SMTP address that has been added to the distribution list as a result of a positive action by the address user.
Opt-In Email Email that contains advertising that users explicitly ask to receive.
Opt-Out Email When a company states that it plans to send advertising to an individual unless that individual asks to be removed from the company's mailing list.
Optical Character Recognition Also known as OCR. This allows a scanner to identify characters on a printed page and can save them as a text document.
Optical Fibre Cable made of glass fibres through which signals are transmitted as pulses of light. Capacity for a very large number of channels can easily be provided. Not yet widely used in cable systems.
Optimisation A computer programme that calculates the "best" media schedule for a given budget, target group and candidate media. Optimisations should be used with caution.
Order Effects Differences in survey results, caused by the order in which questions have been asked and items have been presented e.g. the order in which publications are listed in a readership survey.
Organic Search Results The 'natural' search results that appear in a separate section (usually the main body of the page) to the paid listings. The results listed here have not been paid for and are ranked by the search engine (using spiders or algorithms) according to relevancy to the term searched upon. See also spider, algorithm, SEO
OSCAR Outdoor Site Classification & Audience Research. The old research system for the Outdoor industry. OSCAR has now ceased, being replaced by POSTAR. The research classified and evaluated outdoor sites by virtue of a number of various criteria.
OTH Opportunity To Hear (or Frequency). Usually quoted as an average campaign will be heard, Impacts divided by Reach.
OTH/OTS Abbreviation of Opportunities To Hear/ Opportunities To See.
Other Viewing Viewing to broadcast channels other than ITV, Ch4/S4C, BBC1, BBC2.
OTS Opportunity to see (hear) an advertisement. . Eg, the issue readership of a magazine would be considered to have had an opportunity to see an advertisement appearing in that particular issue. Normally shown as an average OTS among the audience reached, such as: 80% coverage with an average OTS of 4. Not interchangeable with impact(s), which is a more precise definition of actual advertisement exposure.
OTT (over the top) In the fields of broadcasting and content delivery, over-the-top content, over-the-top, or OTT for short, means on-line streaming of movies. It also refers to delivering related content such as archival TV shows and other content, services, and applications in a video environment. OTT in particular refers to live video delivery through the Internet. Consumers can access OTT content through internet-connected devices such as PCs, laptops, tablets, set top boxes, and gaming consoles such as the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.
Out of Home Viewing The TV audience where people are watching anywhere outside a private house, such as in pubs, clubs, offices, and other work places.
Outdoor Generic name for external poster advertising.
Outdoor Media Centre (OMC) The Outdoor Media Centre is the trade body for outdoor media owners.
Outsert Advertisement sales material which is attached to and encompasses the outer covers of a press publication.
Outsmart A comprehensive resource for anyone using or thinking about Out of Home. Helping plan OOH campaigns, showcasing campaigns and providing research and insight.
Over the Top Over the Top (OTT) are TV services provided via normal internet - with the traffic issues that this entails
Overclaim When respondents claim to own, purchase, fly more frequently, earn more, to have read a publication, have seen an advertisement (and so on) more than they actually do or have done.
Overlap (TV) Normally those areas of the country where 15% or more of homes can and do watch two or more ITV stations, viewing each for at least two hours out of every ten spent watching ITV.
Overlay An ad type that appears over a web page. Overlays usually run for a period of time, and then deactivate themselves. They lead to increased user engagement and interaction.
Overnights The previous day's viewing is released to the industry at 9.30am the next day (see also VOSDAL)
Overruns Additional copies of a publication or other printed material that are produced in excess of those needed for distribution. Overruns are typically produced to meet additional needs or unexpected demand, or sometimes in the context of compensation.
Oversampling Used to provide larger samples of certain groups of people than representative sampling would give.
OWN Literally 'own' circulation figure. The figure provided by publisher, rather than an external auditor like the ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation).
Package Pre-selected list (eg of TV, Publiscations poster sites). In radio a package is a syndicated feed that generally plays out on a number of radio stations at the same time. Typically the feed is taken from one master station. The stations that form part of a package are not restricted to a specific sales point. In commercial radio, ad breaks that fall within the defined package times are also syndicated which means that the individual radio stations cannot broadcast their own ads. Current packages include The Big Top 40 Show on Sunday late afternoons; Newslink and Entertainment Drive.
Packet Switching The way in which data is transferred on the Internet.
Page dominance Extent to which a press advertisement fills a page.
Page Impression In online research, the single display of a website, regardless of how often the same user is counted or how long he/she stays with the site.
Page Impressions/Page Views A page impression is a file or combination of files sent to a user as a result of that user's request being received by the server. In effect, one request by a valid user should result in one page impression being counted. So it is the number of times a page is seen by a user.
Page Traffic (Score) Percentage of readers claiming to have read or looked at anything on a particular page of the publication.
Page View An internet user's request to load a single HTML page.
Pagination The breakdown of newspaper and Magazine pages by type, eg. full colour, mono etc.
Paid for listings Paid for listings within general search services. This includes all of the non graphical search advertising formats from keywords to direct feeds, local search and pay per call. Search is sold on a pay per click basis where the advertiser pays only when
Paid Inclusion In exchange for a payment, a search engine will guarantee to list/review pages from a website. It is not guaranteed that the pages will rank well for particular queries - this still depends on the search engine's underlying relevancy process.
Paid Listings The search results list in which advertisers pay to be featured according to the PPC model. This list usually appears in a separate section to the organic search results- usually at the top of the page or down the right hand side. See also Organic search results, PPC (Pay Per Click).
Paid Search See PPC.
PAL (Phase Alternate Line) TV system used by terrestrial TV in the UK and on most European satellite channels.
PAMCo The Publishers Audience Measurement Company- The governing body which oversees audience measurement for the published media industry.
Panel Sample of people used for regular, periodic research - eg: music testing.
Panel (outdoor) Conventional flat poster site; may or may not be illuminated.
Paper Diaries Paper diaries were widely used before the development of people-meters. They consist of short booklets with one page, or double page spread, for each day of the week. The design and layout of diaries can have a considerable effect on the response rate and the quality of data collected.
Parallel Poster This is a poster which is positioned parallel to a road and can be seen from both sides of that road.
Parallel Readership When a respondent reads more than one issue of a publication during its Last Publication Period.
Parent Survey A survey used to provide either a universal estimate for another survey or the Sampling Frame of another survey.
Parental Lock Receiver's PIN-operated lock to prevent access to a specified channel.
Pass-on Readership Readers of a publication who were not initial purchasers, or addressees of a free publication. 'Secondary' readers as opposed to 'primary' readers; also described as 'pass along' readership.
Passages In outdoor research this is a measure of the number of people passing a site.
Passive Sensing An audience measurement method currently under development; infra-red facial images are recorded by the meter, so no active participation from panel members is required.
Patronage The absolute percentage of people who watch a channel at all over a particular period of time (typically one day, week or month).
Pay cable Cable programming service for which subscribers pay a monthly fee on top of that required for the basic cable service.
Pay for Performance Program Also called Affiliate Marketing, Performance based, Partner Marketing, CPA, or Associate Program. Any type of revenue sharing program where a publisher receives a commission for generating online activity (e.g. leads or sales) for an advertiser.
Pay per Click (PPC) Allows advertisers to bid for placement in the paid listings search results on terms that are relevant to their business. Advertisers pay the amount of their bid only when a consumer clicks on their listing. Also called sponsored search/ paid search.
Pay per lead The commission structure where the advertiser pays the publisher a flat fee for each qualified lead (customer) that is referred to the advertiser’s website.
Pay per sale The commission structure where the advertiser pays a percentage or flat fee to the publisher based on the revenue generated by the sale of a product or service to a visitor who came from a publisher site.
Pay per View (PPV) The on-demand equivalent of pay-per-view. In fact, paying for a single play is unusual and this term simply signifies that there is a limit on use, in contrast to download-to-own. More common is a limited number of plays or a window, of 24 hours say or a month, during which the content can be viewed an unlimited number of times.
Pay-per-Click In pay-per-click advertising, the advertiser pays a certain amount for each click-through to the advertiser's website. The amount paid per click-through is arranged at the time of the insertion order and varies considerably.
Pay-per-Lead An advertising model in which advertisers pay for each "sales lead" generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form.
Pay-per-Sale An advertising model in which advertisers pay agencies/and or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad.
Pay-Per-View Pay-TV service enabling users to pay for each programme watched, rather than on a monthly subscription basis.
Pay-TV TV service supported by subscription income rather than by advertising. Includes Pay Cable, and Subscription TV.
Pay/Basic Ratio This is a measure of the number of subscriptions to the pay channels (Sky Moves, Sky Sports, HVC/The Adult Channel, Playboy TV and TVX) as a percentage of total subscribers. This measure may differ from other published results depending what channels are provided on a premium basis.
Paywall An arrangement whereby access is restricted to users who have paid to subscribe to the site.
PBR Payment by results - typically used, for instance, in connection with DRTV campaigns.
PCA Post Campaign Analysis takes place once a campaign has finished and is used to monitor performance. Usually Post Campaign Analysis will compare what was booked with what was actually achieved in terms of audience.
PDA Abbreviation for Personal Digital Assistant.
PDA Synch The total number of times that a PDA device has requested a site's PDA content in the period being measured.
PDF Portable Document Format: file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. PDF is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device-independent and display resolution-independent fixed-layout document format. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a 2-D document (and, with Acrobat 3-D, embedded 3-D documents) that includes the text, fonts, images, and 2-D vector graphics that compose the document.
Peak time TV rate card daypart/segment which defines the period of the broadcasting day during which the highest rates will be charged. Also used as informal shorthand for evening time.
Pearl & Dean One of the UK's cinema contractors - http://www.pearlanddean.com/
Penalty/Reward Analysis A key driver analysis that looks at the Equity statements/ usership areas that are associated with dissatisfaction and those correlating with satisfaction.
Penetration Once synonymous with coverage or reach, but now falling out of use as a media term. However, was widely used in other marketing contexts, such as the proportion of housewives purchasing a product eg 'Product A market penetration is 30%'
Peoplemeter The current method of audience measurement, allowing panel members to register their viewing by means of a remote handset. This data, along with information about the television sets in the home, are stored temporarily in a data storage unit in each panel home, which is then polled nightly through the telephone network.
Peoplemeters Peoplemeters are used to record electronically who is watching TV.
Percentage Bounced The percentage of the total emails sent in a mailing distribution that bounced (see Emails Bounced).
Perfect bound Binding process used in magazines where the spine of the publication is glued and flattened (also known as 'square bound'). The commonest alternative is the 'stapled' or 'saddle-stitched' binding method.
Performance Evaluation of a schedule's achievements after the event, often in terms of coverage (see Television) and frequency (see Television).
Peripheral A generic term used to describe any devices such as printers, modems, joysticks and monitors that are connected to a computer and controlled by a microprocessor.
Persistence The length of time that a TV set needs to be tuned to a particular channel before this is recorded by the meter.
Personal Communication Device Also known as PCD. A term used to describe small portable communication devices such as pagers and cellular phones.
Personal Meters A new type of device currently under development to permit the measurement of an individual's overall television viewing, radio listening or both.
Personal Television A TV set-top device that enables viewers to pause, fast-forward and rewind live programmes.
Personal Video Recorder (PVR) is a hard disc based digital video recorder most use MPEG technology and enables viewers to pause and rewind live TV. PVR’s also interact with EPG’s to automatically record favourite programmes and have lead to an increase in the number of consumers watc
PEX PEX (relating to QRS) is a measure of page exposures. The PEX score measures the number of times the average reader opens the average page. In effect this means the av number of times the average ad will typically be seen in a single issue of the publication.
PG Certificate Parental guidance, some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.
Pharming An illegal method of redirecting traffic from another company's website (such as a bank) to a fake one designed to look similar in order to steal user details when they try to log in. See also Phishing
Phishing An illegal method whereby legitimate looking e-mails (appearing to come from a well-known bank, for example) are used in an attempt to get personal information that can be used to steal a user's identity.
Picture in Picture This is also known as PIP. A facility where some television sets and set top terminals are able to show a small secondary picture from another channel within the main picture.
Piggy-back offer Direct mail offer which is included free with another offer.
Pixel Picture element (single dot) on a computer monitor. The metric used to indicate the size of internet ads.
Placement The area where an advertisement is displayed/placed within a publisher’s mobile content.
Placeshifting The viewing (or listening) of broadcast media via the internet on a remote PC, laptop or other device, or of viewing stored media shifted from, say, a PC to another device, using specially developed software.
Planning System In radio a system used by media agencies and sales points to plan radio airtime campaigns for stations, groups and/or packages. The planning system allows the user to project the impacts and reach that would be gained if an ad or combination of ads were b
Plasma Flat-screen technology that contains an inert ionized gas sandwiched between x- and y-axis panels. These have become increasingly popular with models 40 inches diagonal and greater being used for computer displays, high-end home theater and digital TV.
Platform The computer hardware and operating system that applications are run on.
Platform In Radio platform denotes how a listener listens to the radio (so the platform used to listen to the radio). The current platforms recorded in the RAJAR survey are Analogue (AM/FM), DAB, Digital TV and Internet listening.
Platform A term encompassing the various ways in which a home can receive television; terrestrial; satellite; cable
Play-Through Rate The rate at which viewers watch a specified portion of a given video. Used interchangeably with "completion rate".
Playout System A playout system is the system used by broadcasters to broadcast (or 'play out') the ads on air, so they can be heard by listeners. This can be a pyhysical piece of equipment such as CD player; or a piece of software or indeed a group of processes used by
Playstation A series of video game consoles with multi-media capabilities created and developed by Sony Computer Entertainment
Plug and Play This is the name given to computer systems that can automatically configure a device that is added to it.
Plus one (+1) Plus one television channels are channels that repeat everything from a main channel one hour after the original broadcast.
PML Abbreviation of Personalised Media List, a technique developed by Ipsos UK.
PMP Abbreviation of Portable Media Player.
PMT Photomechanical Transfer - Paper negative which produces a positive print by a process of chemical transfer.
Podcast Audio or video clips that can be downloaded as files from the internet for listening/viewing in own time.
Podcast Subscriber A unique User who has asked to be notified about podcast availability.
Podcasting Podcasting involves making an audio file (usually in MP3 format) of content –usually in the form of a radio program that is available to download to an MP3 player.
Polarity Property of satellite signals to differentiate between signals of similar frequencies and squeeze more channels into the available space.
Polite Loading Fixed online advertising placements that load and display additional Flash content after the host page on which the advert appears has finished loading.
Pop Under An ad that pops up behind the site on which the ad is running on.
Pop Up An ad that pops up in front of the site on which the ad is running on.
Popular Socio-demographic term primarily applied to newspapers whose readership profile has a bias towards the C2, D and E social grade groupings.
Population The number of people in the survey Universe, sub-universe or Target Group.
Portal A website that often serves as a starting point for a web user's session. It typically provides services such as search, directory of websites, news, weather, email, homepage space, stock quotes, sports news, entertainment, telephone directory information, area maps and chat or message boards.
POS Point of sale
Positioner Unit to control the position of a motorised dish.
Post Roll The streaming of a mobile advertising clip after a mobile TV/video clip. The mobile advert is usually 10-15 seconds.
Post-testing Advertising post-testing is designed to assess the reactions of the target audience for a campaign after it has been broadcast.
Postal Survey A survey for which the questionnaire or a diary is wholly or partly completed by the respondent him/herself. The method of placement and /or collection (= return) of questionnaire or diary may be postal.
Postcode Address File (PAF) A list of all the postal delivery points in the UK compiled by the Royal Mail. This is frequently used as a sampling frame.
Poster Posters come in a variety of standard sizes, measured by the number of sheets.
Poster Specialist A company that constructs an outdoor campaign for a client often using sites bought from a number of different contractors.
PPA Periodical Publishers Association - Works to promote and protect the interests of the magazine publishing industry. Members: UK magazine publishing houses of consumer, business and consumer specialist magazines.
PPC Pay-per-click; refers to an online advertising model where payment is based solely on the number of click-throughs.
PPL Pay-per-lead, an online advertising model where payment is based on the number of leads.
PPM Portable People Meter, carried by the respondent.
PPV Pay per view refers to the process by which viewers pay for content on a single viewing or short-term rental basis.
PR PageRank, an algorithm used by Google to rank websites in their search engine results. PageRank was named after Larry Page.
Pre Roll The name given to the adverts shown before, or whilst an online video is loading. There can be more than one and although they all vary in length, they average 21seconds in duration.
Pre-empt Sales process used principally in television advertising by which buyers can out-bid previous purchasers for a particular spot, according to the pre-empt rate card structure printed on the medium's rate card, until the 'top of the rate card' level is reached.
Pre-roll Advert Usually 30 or 15 second ads at the beginning of clips that can't be skipped in videos.
Pre-testing Advertising pre-testing is designed to assess the reactions of the target audience for a campaign before it is shown.
Premiere Buying Route Premier works on the same premise as the AGP but offers advertisers extra flexibility by filtering in appropriate film product.
Press Feed The way in which the printing machine is fed with paper.
Pressad Database Newspaper Society database holding rate and circulation info. on regional press.
Price Evaluation Ipsos use a number of pricing approaches two of which are The Gabor Granger, a method to determine the price of a new product or service, and Van Westendorf, another powerful technique used in pricing research.
Primary Reader In the UK, a primary reader is usually defined as the purchaser of a publication or a member of his/her household, who is likely to show a greater interest in the publication than a pass on reader.
Primary Sampling Units A group of eligible units (geographic areas, post codes, addresses etc.) used as the first stage in the creation of the sample.
Prime-focus Type of dish antenna with the focus and feed-horn in line with the centre of the dish.
Print Order Publishers may supply an unverified statement of their print order. These statements are valid for six months following the date of issue to which they relate. They must state the edition, followed by the print order followed by the phrase "publisher's statement".
Print Run The number of copies of an issue of a publication that were printed.
Private Household A single person, or group of people living together whose food and household expenses are managed as one unit.
Pro-Logic Surround sound decoder system invented by Dolby laboratories to reproduce cinema sound in the home.
Probability Model A type of mathematical model used to evaluate media schedules.
Probability Sample Sample designed to strict procedures to ensure that each member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for interview.
Process This refers to the process used to apply ink to paper.
Product Field A classification of advertisement brands by type.
Product/Media Data Media audience and product usage, or purchase, data derived from the same informant. Also known as single-source data. The best known example is the Target Group Index (TGI).
Production Specifications Details are given of the publishers requirements for the form in which advertisement copy should be submitted. Copy supplied which does not conform to these specifications is usually subject to a surcharge.
Profile The way a TV/radio programme's audience or a publication's readership breaks down across a single variable like age, job title, income, and so on.
Profile (NRS) The audience figure as a % of all adults is often referred to as the profile of a publication.
Profile (Radio and TV) The audience or programme profile of a certain programme.
Programme Attribution Service (PAS) The Programme Attribution Service (PAS) is the service that Ipsos runs for BARB and the TV industry that assigns unique programme and genre codes to all television programmes.
Programme Genre The classification of programmes by type eg. sport, drama, etc.
Programme Sponsorship A form of promotion where a company associates its name with a programme, usually by references to itself or an associated product at the beginning and/or end of the programme and the programme breaks.
Programme Weight Used in detailed programme analysis to indicate the amount of a programme watched by the audience. A percentage of the total transmission time viewed is given.
Programmer As distinct from Operator, the programmer supplies programmes, product or software for showing on cable TV networks.
Projectible Universe Either the collection of people whose total number represents the ultimate potential reach of a piece of activity or all of the people researched by a survey or any sub-group of it.
Proofing Once film has been made, a proof has to be produced so that the client and reproduction house can satisfy themselves that the quality and sizing are correct and the printer, too, will require a proof to refer to when printing the finished job. Proofing can be done either on a press or by using photographic/electrostatic methods.
Protocol Standards that identify how traffic and communication are handled by a computer or network.
PS: See Playstation Playstation, a series of video game consoles with multi-media capabilities created and developed by Sony Computer Entertainment
PSMS Premium SMS. A text message that is charged at a premium over the standard rate.
PSU A group of eligible units (geographic areas, post codes, addressees, etc.) used as the first stage in the creation of the sample.
Psychographics A term that describes consumers or a targeted group on the basis of psychological characteristics. These are determined by standardised tests to produce an agreed segmentation which can be related to media and product usage, for predictive purposes.
Public Switch Telephone Network Also known as PSTN. The name given to the landline telephone network.
Publication Interval The time interval between issues of a publication, also referred to as publication period.
Publication Period The time interval between issues of a publication, also referred to as publication interval.
Publisher Also referred to as an Affiliate, Associate, Partner, Reseller or Content Site). An independent party, or website, that promotes the products or services of an advertiser in exchange for a commission.
Publisher's Statement A document issued by a publisher giving circulation details of a publication and/or one of its regional or demographic editions.
Pull Media A little used term for the form of new media (typically the web) which requires the user to actively seek content.
Pull VOD Pull VOD is a form of video-on-demand distribution that uses a permanent 'always-on' connection to deliver video on-demand content upon a user's request. Content is transmitted via cable or broadband networks directly to a set top box.
Push Media A form of new media which uses the Internet as a vehicle to push content directly to the user. Typically this push is linked to screensaver or email technology.
Push VOD Push VOD is a form of video on-demand which uses a digital television recorder to automatically store content, often without requiring the user to perform any form of request. Content is transmitted overnight when broadcast capacity is readily available, and the user can view TV programmes and movies via an on-demand menu.
PVR Short for personal video recorder, a generic term for a device that is similar to a VCR but records television data in digital format as opposed to the VCR's analogue format. VCRs utilise analogue tapes to record and play programs broadcast over television, but PVRs encode video data in MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 formats and store the data in a hard drive. PVRs have all of the same functionality of VCRs (recording, playback, fast forwarding, rewinding, pausing) plus the ability to instantly jump to any part of the program without having to rewind or fast forward the data stream.
PVR/DVR Short for personal video recorder, a generic term for a device that is similar to a VCR but records television data in digital format as opposed to the VCR's analogue format. VCRs utilise analogue tapes to record and play programs broadcast over television, but PVRs encode video data in MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 formats and store the data in a hard drive. PVRs have all of the same functionality of VCRs (recording, playback, fast forwarding, rewinding, pausing) plus the ability to instantly jump to any part of the program without having to rewind or fast forward the data stream.
QR Code Quick response code
QRS Quality Of Reading Survey is a major study which aims to give advertisers, agencies, and media owners a greater understanding of the value of print medium and the differences within it. The survey measures a wealth of behavioural and attitudinal characteristics among the readers of magazines and newspaper sections and supplements, including page exposures*** (PEX), time spent reading, number of pick-ups, how a publications is read, and a series of agree-disagree attitude statements. QRS is sponsored by the IPA, ISBA and PPA and conducted by RSL- Research Ltd. QRS research was conducted by face-to-face CAPI interviews in the home, on a total sample of just over 15,000 adults aged 15+. The interviews were conducted in two phases, October 1997 - January 1998 and October 1999 - May 2000 (QRS 2). There are no more surveys due to be carried out. The interview followed NRS methodology exactly, in measuring average issue readership of all publications and the key classification data. Readership data was collected for all national print titles featured on the NRS, creating a media list of more than 240 consumer magazines, newspaper sections and supplements. The study was carried out by IPSOS-RSL, which is the research company responsible for NRS. Click here for a list of QRS titles
Quad crown Poster size in landscape format, equivalent in size to half that of a 4 sheet. Most commonly used by film/cinema advertisers on the London Underground.
Qualitative (Research) In media usage, going a stage beyond mere head counting, taking account of attention, reading intensity, editorial environment, etc. In market research, a small scale in-depth study (group discussions, depth interviews, etc) designed to elicit detailed attitudes and information outside the strict, structured confines of a questionnaire.
Quality Socio-demographic term primarily applied to newspapers whose readership profile has a bias towards the A or B social grade groupings.
Quality Control An important aspect of conducting media research covering all stages of a project including data collection, analysis and reporting procedures.
Quality of Reading Survey (QRS) The aim of the Quality of Reading Survey is to give advertisers, media planners, buyers and media owners a greater understanding of the value of the print medium and the differences within it.
Quantitative (Research) Research based on large samples, using a highly structured questionnaire (e.g. NRS, TGI). Such surveys yield statistically valid data of a 'numeric' type.
Quark A file produced in QuarkXPress: QuarkXPress is a computer application for creating and editing complex page layouts in a WYSIWYG environment. It runs on Mac OS X and Windows. QuarkXPress is primarily used by large publishing houses to produce the kinds of complex page layouts required by magazines, newspapers, catalogues, and similar printed materials. It is one of two products (the other being Adobe InDesign) that dominate that market space.
Query string formation In a search engine, a query string is the set of words entered into a search engine by an individual. For example, a search for “search engine marketing information”. Query string formation is simply the process of thinking of the correct query string to
Questionnaire Document or paper used by the interviewer or researcher, on which are recorded the precise questions and answers required for the survey. It should be emphasised that a questionnaire is a very precise instrument and its construction requires highly specialised skills.
Quota Sample Sample obtained by deliberately interviewing a pre-set proportion of people with given characteristics. Commonly used quotas are sex, age and social grade.
R.O.A.R. R.O.A.R., or Right of Admission Reserved, is one of the most extensive youth projects in the UK, providing continuous panel research into the lives of 15-24 year olds.
RA Radio Authority. The regulatory body for all commercial radio. It plans frequencies, appoints licencees and regulates programming and advertising.
RAB Radio Advertising Bureau. The marketing department for the commercial radio industry. Its mission is to increase the levels of familiarity and favourability towards commercial radio as an advertising medium.
Radio Centre (The) UK body representing the interests of commercial radio
Radio Index The appreciation index for radio programmes is sometimes referred to as an RI-Radio Index.
Radio Ratings Impacts expressed as a percentage of the population group being measured. Calculated by impacts x 100 divided by population.
RAJAR Radio Joint Audience Research. RAJAR is a company specifically established to manage the UK's agreed system of radio audience measurement. It is jointly owned by the Radio Centre (on behalf of commercial radio companies) and by the BBC.
Rajar Diary The diary that a sample of the population keep to record their live Radio listening (so not listening back or podcasts...) When this sampled population listen to the radio for at least 5 minutes they need to record the station they were listening to, the
RAJAR Regions The 11 RAJAR IR regions (independent radio regions) are created from the existing commercial stations' TSA. As such, they overlap and their geography varies along with TSA changes. The other regions available on RAJAR are the BBC Editorial Areas and the new non-overlapping ITV regions that were introduced by BARB with their new 2010 contract.
Rajar Survey Period Also known as wave length, the Survey Period is defined as Quarterly (3 months/13 weeks), Half Yearly (6 months/26 weeks) or Yearly (12 months/52 weeks). The audiences of individual stations are based on the Survey Period that returns the minimum sample f
Rajar Wave The quarterly period in which RAJAR data is surveyed.
Random Sample Sample designed to restrict procedures to ensure that each member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for interview. Sometimes called an equal probability sample.
Ratecard Published airtime costs, often including a range of incentives, for example volume or expenditure.
Rating - Spot Single half- hour or quarter-hour audience expressed as a percentage of the population group being measured. Calculated by half or quarter-hour audience x 100, divided by relevant population.
Ratings (Rating Points) For a given category of individuals (e.g. men, women or children) this is the number of individuals viewing, expressed as a percentage of all such individuals.
Raw Log File A text file containing the unfiltered, unprocessed electronic transactions recorded by a server for all processed actions, whether dealing with web, streaming or email content.
RCC Radio Clearance Centre. Commercial radio's advertising clearance body.
RDD Random Digit Dialling (RDD) is a method of selecting people for involvement in telephone surveys by generating telephone numbers at random.
Reach The number of unique web users potentially seeing a website one or more times in a given time period expressed as a percentage of the total active web population for that period.
Reach (any medium) The number of different people who are exposed to a schedule of advertisements.
Reach (Internet) 1) Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percentage of the universe for the demographic category; also called unduplicated audience. 2) The total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.
Reach (TV) Programme/Daypart Reach assesses what percentage of the population saw a specified amount of programme or daypart. It is also used cumulatively to assess what percentage saw a specified amount of a complete series/month of television etc. The amount which must have been viewed in order for someone to be considered 'reached' can be defined variously, but it often three minutes of a programme or daypart. Cumulative reach does not simply add the reach of individual programmes or dayparts, someone who saw at least three minutes of each programme in a six-part series would be included once, not six times, in the calculation of cumulative reach. Commercial Reach/Cover/Coverage/ is used in conjunction with frequency to reveal the extent to which a campaign was seen by the target audience. In the case of commercials , duration is nearly always a minute or less, so various definitions of reach/cover are not possible - for each spot, the target audience either viewed or did not. Reach/cover can then be calculated for various stages throughout the campaign.
Reach - Campaign The number of different individuals who are exposed to a schedule of commercials.
Reach - Weekly (Radio) The number in thousands or as a percentage of the UK/area population who listen to a station for at least five minutes in the course of an average week.
Reach and Frequency The number of people who, for example, have had an opportunity to see an insertion in a given issue of a publication or who watch a television channel and the frequency of which they read or watch it.
Reach and Frequency Analysis Reach and Frequency Analysis calculate reach and frequency.
Readers Per Copy (RPC) Estimate of the number of people who read an average circulated copy of a publication.
Readership Remembrance (Outdoor) The number and percentage of people who remember having seen individual posters-based on home interviews.
Reading and Noting The readership measurement technique by which page traffic scores are obtained.
Reading Frequency ("How Often") The estimation of the frequency of exposure to a publication.
Reading Probability For a given publication, reading probabilities are calculated for people falling within each claimed reading frequency group.
Real Audio Software that permits Internet users to listen to audio in real time.
Real Time The process by which software enables large quantities of fast changing audio/video data to be received almost immediately.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) Software that allows you to flag website content (often from blogs or new sites) and aggregate new entries to this content into an easy to read format that is delivered directly to a user's PC. See also blogs.
Recall Respondent's ability to remember.
Receiver Inside unit to take signals from the antenna, tune and convert them for display on a TV.
Recency In readership surveys recent measures, for a given publication, the lapsed time between the last reading event and the day of interview.
Recent Reading The term to describe the technique that establishes readership levels by asking respondents when they last read or looked at any issue of each publication.
Recognition Recognition in a readership survey, the measurement of reading by using issues of the publication, stripped issues, front covers, and/or table of contents.
Red button A button on the remote control for certain digital television set top boxes in the United Kingdom and used to access interactive television services.
Referral In An arrival to a site from outside (elsewhere on the Internet) by a unique device.
Registered Address A contactable SMTP address in the distribution list that has requested the email service.
Registered Address/ Reach Metric, Email A contactable email address that a media owner holds as part of a distribution list.
Registered User Account An account set up for a User to request to receive access to a website, service or network.
Registered Users Users of a website who have completed a questionnaire or subscription form before being allowed access top the site. For consumer publications these subscriptions are usually free but allow the publisher to gain key demographic data about their users. To be claimed as a registered user in an audit, registrants must be contactable by the auditing company to enable validation of the claim.
Regression analysis Mathematical technique which has multiple, linear and non-linear forms and is used for the fitting of data points to lines or curves to provde a forecasting model (often used in tracking studies and response campaigns).
Regular Readership Estimate of the number of people who read a publication on a regular basis.
Regular/Active Internet User A user who uses the internet more than once during a particular period.
Repeat Reading When an issue of a publication or a particular page inside it is read or looked at on more than one occasion.
Replay TV see Catch-up TV
Replicated Readership When a respondent reads the same issue of a publication during two or more different Publication Periods.
Requested Download A request for a non-HTML file which can be used offline- such as an mp3 audio file or a spreadsheet.
Requested Podcast A Requested Download of an audio or video file made by a User following automated notification that a file is available.
Requirement/Reward Analysis A key driver analysis that looks at the Equity statements/ usership areas that are associated with dissatisfaction and those covering satisfaction.
RES Readers Enquiry Service - Publishers may offer a service whereby readers enquiries concerning advertisements will be passed on to advertisers. This will normally be a form which appears in the magazine for the reader to fill in and return.
Respondent The person providing the information to the interviewer/researcher.
Respondent Level Data In radio this refers to RAJAR data which is analysed at the most granular level, by individual respondents’ diaries.
Response Function Response functions attempt to identify a relationship between the number of Opportunities To See insertions in a schedule and the resulting effectiveness of the advertising.
Response Rate The number of successfully completed interviews or returned questionnaires expressed as a percentage of those it was attempted to screen or interview/question.
Restricted Service Licence A UK Restricted Service Licence, is granted to a radio station to serve a local community or a special event. Licences are granted by Ofcom.
Retail Customer Magazine This is publication published by or on behalf of a retailer, that is aimed at the customer of that retailer. It is supplied to the Retailer's own outlets for distribution in-store, either paid for or free.
Return Path The means by which messages are transmitted back through the cable system from the subscriber to the headend.
RFID Abbreviation of Radio Frequency Identification.
RHP Right Hand Page
Rich Media A method of communication that incorporates animation, sound, video, and/or interactivity. It can be used either singularly or in combination with the following technologies: streaming media, sound, flash, and with programming languages such as Java, Javascript and DHTML. It is deployed via standard web and wireless applications including email, web design, banners, buttons, and interstitials. Examples include Eyewonder, Flash and Eyeblaster advertisements.
Rich Media Guidelines Design guidelines produced by the IAB (USA) for effective use of Rich Media technologies in all forms of internet advertising. They aim to protect user experience by keeping them in control of the experience eg: encouraging clearly labelled close, sound and video buttons
Rim Weighting Rim weighting looks at each target variable in turn. The sample is weighted to the first variable (e.g. region).
Road blocking Placing a commercial on as many cable (or other minority) services as possible at the same time, to maximise ratings.
ROI (Return on Investment) Net profit divided by investment. ROI is the "bottom line" on how successful an ad or campaign was in terms of what the returns (generally sales revenue) were for the money expended.
Rollover (Internet) The act of a visitor moving their mouse over an ad, resulting in the ad changing its behaviour e.g. expanding.
RON (Run of Network) The scheduling of internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventor. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.
ROP Run of Paper - signifying that an advertisement booked thus may appear in any position within the publication (ie is not guaranteed to appear in any specific position).
ROS (Run Of Site) The scheduling of internet advertising whereby ads run across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.
Rotary Printing from plates on cylinders.
Rotation A change in the order of presentation of publications over the sample of interviews.
Route The audience research body for out-of-home media (renamed from POSTAR)
ROW Run of Week - an ad. booked on this basis may appear on any day of the specified week.
RPC Readers Per Copy (RPC) are simply calculated as the average issue readership divided by the circulation.
RR Survey Abbreviation of Recent Reading Survey.
RRE Right Reading Emulsion - term used to describe way film is produced by printers, which is then sent to advertisers
RSA Advertising Was known as Cinema Media.
RSL Research Services Limited - Research contractors founded in 1946, now Ipsos-MORI.
RSS Really Simple Syndication - Software that allows you to flag website content (often from blogs or new sites) and aggregate new entries to this content into an easy to read format that is delivered directly to a user's PC.
RSS Referral In A Referral In generated by a click on a headline or link in an RSS feed.
RT Retweet
RTB Real time bidding
S4C Sianel Pedwar Cymru (Welsh Fourth Channel) - established under the Broadcasting Act of 1980, and controlled by the Welsh Fourth Channel Authority.
SaaS Software as a service
Sale When a user makes a purchase from an online advertiser.
Sales House An organisation which sells advertising on behalf of other media owners. These sales houses typically retain a percentage of the revenue they sell in exchange for their services. These organisations may combine a number of websites together and sell them as different packages to advertisers.
Sales House (radio) The company that sells radio activity on behalf of the owner of the radio station. In many cases, the sales point owns the radio stations that it sells the airtime for. In a few cases, the sales point doesn't own the station, but acts as a selling agent for the owner of that station.
Sales Point (radio) The company that sells radio activity on behalf of the owner of the radio station. In many cases, the sales point owns the radio stations that it sells the airtime for. In a few cases, the sales point doesn't own the station, but acts as a selling agent for the owner of that station.
Sallies Small-scale Alternative Location Local Licences or Sallies are the result of a new radio authority policy introduced in 1996.
Sample Those respondents identified as being eligible to be interviewed or questioned for a survey.
Sample Size The number of respondents (or households) from whom research data was successfully collected.
Sample Weights Different values put on constituent parts of the sample to restore them to the correct proportions e.g. Suppose that a biased sample of 100 people included 20 men and 80 women. A researcher could correct for this imbalance by attaching a weight of 2.5 for each male and 0.625 for each female. This would adjust any estimates to achieve the same expected value as a sample that included exactly 50 men and 50 women.
Sampling Error Statistical term synonymous with Standard Error.
Sampling Frame Known data used to generate the sample. Most specifically a grouping or listing of all the eligible units (such as countries, post codes, addresses, establishments, etc.) which are used to provide a sample.
Sampling Point A geographic district where interviews were carried out. The definition of the districts will be determined by the structure of the sampling frame.
Sampling Procedure Those respondents identified as being eligible to be interviewed or questioned for a survey. It often refers to those actually interviewed or questioned.
SAP Station Average Price - calculation of the average 30" cost-per-thousand for a specified audience group, obtained by dividing total station revenue by total relevant ratings achieved, over a specified time period.
Satellite (analogue vs digital) Television signals received via a satellite and dish
Satellite Master Antenna Television SMATV systems are similar to MATV, but instead of a landbased aerial relaying 'over-the-air' channels by cable, there are large satellite dish receivers with a cable connection running to individual households enabling them to receive satellite TV channels.
SCC Single Column Centimetre
Schedule Media schedule - list of media vehicles usually with accompanying data, such as insertion dates, rates, etc.
Schedule Evaluation An estimate of how a schedule or schedules perform against given target markets.
Scrambling In cable television this refers to process of electronically modifying or encrypting a broadcast signal to allow only persons with an appropriate decoder to view the output.
Screen Grabs The name given to the process of capturing images and video stills to a digital file.
Screen Size Measurement of density of half-tone dot formation used to reproduce pictures. Greater density represents a higher print quality. The screen ruling measures the number of lines or dots per centimetre. Different screen sizes are usually applicable to colour and mono copy.
Screen-By-Screen Buying Route Cinema screens have individual weekly rates, with a minimum exhibition of one screen for one week. This route allows precise geographical targeting.
Screening The identification of eligible units (people, addresses, companies etc.) within the Sampling Frame.
Search The first Page Impression sent to a valid User as a result of that browser's search request being received by the server.
Search Click A Click origination from a set of search results.
Search Engine A web program that helps users find information on the internet. The method for finding this information is usually done by maintaining an index of web resources that can be queried for the keywords or concepts entered by the user.
Search Engine Marketing (SEM) The process which aims to get websites listed prominently in search engine results through search engine optimisation, sponsored search and paid inclusion. See also PPC and SEO and Paid Inclusion.
Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) The process which aims to get websites listed prominently within search engine’s organic (algorithmic, spidered) search results. Involves making a site ‘search engine friendly’. See also organic listings.
SECAM TV system used by some French channels. Displays as black and white on UK PAL television.
Second screen Second screen refers to the use of an additional electronic device (e.g. tablet, smartphone or the computer) by individuals who are already watching the television.
Secondary Readers Readers of a publication issue that was not bought by themselves or a member of their household, or who were not the original recipients of a title sent free of charge.
Secure Server Encrypting system that allows confidential information (such as credit card details) to be sent safely over the Internet.
Selectivity Media vehicle's ability to select particular audience categories, e.g. Regionals, Ages.
Self-Completion Questionnaire / Survey Questionnaire either posted to respondent or left by the interviewer to be completed at the respondent's leisure.
Self-mailer Direct mail material in which no envelope is required for mailing.
Selling Groups A selling group is a combination of titles, which for advertising purposes are sold as a package.
SEM Search Engine Marketing - The process which aims to get websites listed prominently in search-engine results through search-engine optimisation, sponsored search and paid inclusion.
Semi-display Classified newspaper advertisement which contains not just lineage but also a logo and/or other illustrative material. Positioned amongst other ads and grouped together according to 'classifications'.
Semiotics The theory of symbols and signs which explores how people glean meaning from words, sounds, and pictures. Sometimes used in researching names for various products and services. Can be relevant in media planning where the nature of the medium may be thought semiotically significant
SEO Search Engine Optimisation - The process which aims to get websites listed prominently within search engine's organic (algorithmic, spidered) search results. Involves making a site 'search engine friendly'.
Serial Digital Interface (SDI) Is a dedicated digital video interface used to carry broadcast quality video content.
SERP Search engine results page
Served Advertising Served ads are a means of dynamically inserting ads into blank ad spots in a linear broadcast or on-demand programming. This is different to having the ad 'burnt in' by the broadcaster or content provider when it is made. Most are ‘served’ to VOD requests, by region, time of day, content type etc. Sky's adsmart deploys an alternative technology to serve ads using targetted substitutational advertising.
Server A host computer which maintains websites, newsgroups and email services
Service Provider The company or group that provides access to the Internet or an online service (e.g. AOL, Orange, Netcom etc.)
Session See visit
Session See visit
Set Meters TV meters which only collect information on set/equipment/channel- i.e. no information on who is viewing.
Set top box A stand-alone device that receives and decodes programming so that it may be displayed on a television. Set-top boxes may be used to receive broadcast, cable, and satellite programming.
Set top box / STB Supplied to cable and satellite subscribers to enable them to receive signals to their television sets.
Setmeter, Online Setmeter The audience measurement methods used prior to the Peoplemeter. Setmeters were used in conjunction with diaries - the Setmeter collecting information about the television set(s) in the home and the diary used for recording individual viewing patterns. The Setmeter stored its data on a tape which was returned weekly to the research contractor along with the diary. The Online Setmeter allowed data collection to occur nightly via the television network.
SGPID Identification code used in J-ET to represent a station, group or package ID
Share Channel or Audience Share is calculated by comparing the average minutes viewed/ listened for each channel/station in a given time period.
Share of audience Percentage of selected audience which is tuned to a particular medium at a given time, e.g. the proportion of the target group who are watching a particular TV channel between the hours of 7:30 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.
Share Of Listening The percentage of total listening time accounted for by a station in the UK/area.
Share Of Total Viewing The percentage ot total viewing time accounted for by each channel.
Share of voice Share of total adspend accounted for by an advertiser or group of advertisers within a defined market sector over a specified time period
Shareware Software that can be downloaded from the Internet for users to try before deciding to buy.
Sheet Printing by separate sheets rather than reels.
Shockwave Shockwave allows interactive multimedia content such as sounds and animation to be seen on the Internet.
SHR Abbreviation of Share of audience
Shufflecast See Staggercast
Signal Strength Indicator The display on a mobile phone that indicates if a user has a good signal reception for making and receiving calls.
Significance Testing Statistical technique for measuring the significance of research results, taking account of sample size and construction.
SIM Subscriber Identity Module. A removable part the mobile phone hardware that identifies the subscriber.
Sim Card Abbreviation of Subscriber Identify Module Card. A card used inside a mobile phone containing a computer chip which stores information.
Simple Random Sample A single-stage sample where every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
Simulated Station This term is generally used to refer to a radio station not yet on the Rajar survey  that is using simulated data for planning schedules. The simulated data is often based on a percentage of another Rajar station's data.
Simulation The systematic ascription of figures to populations in analysis for which such figures were not obtained by standard interviewing methods.
Simulcast Where channel output is identical (by content/time) between analogue channel and its digital counterpart
Single Page Display Full single page of advertising
Single Source In media research, a "single source" survey refers to a survey which collects media, consumer and demographic data from the same respondents.
Single-Copy-Sales The sales figure applicable to the single copies of a publication which are sold, on a "casual" basis, by the retailer to the buyer; that is, it excludes "committed" sales via subscriptions, or via regular orders from a newsagent.
Single-Source Data See Product/Media Data and Single Source.
SIR Abbreviation of Specific Issue Readership.
Site Two or more interconnected Web pages presented as a unified place on the Web.
Site Analytics The reporting and analysis of website activity - in particular user behaviour on the site. All websites have a weblog which can be used for this purpose, but other third party software is available for a more sophisticated service.
Site Brand URL The single URL that a site (or a network of sites) uses as shorthand to identify itself and all its content.
Site-Centric Measurement In internet research, the method of measuring website audiences through counting page requests for the given site regardless of where they came from geographically or whether they come from work-place or home-based computers or any other devices, including mobile phones.
Size (Outdoor) Poster sizes are as follows: 4 Sheet (40" x 60"); 6 Sheet (1750mmx1185mm); 12 Sheet (36' x 10'); 16 Sheet (6'8" x 10'); 32 Sheet (13'4" x 10'); 48 Sheet (20' x 10'); 96 Sheet (40' x 10'). N.B. There is a small variation in the size of 6 sheets dependent upon the supplier. Details should be checked for production purposes.
Skeletonised Copies Stripped-down copies of publications consisting of the front cover and a number of key pages/articles, occasionally used in magazine research, also known as the Through the Book method (TTB)
Sky 3D Sky 3D is the broadcast channel dedicated to 3D content from UK satellite TV platform Sky. It was officially launched on 1st October, 2010 and was Europe's first 3D broadcast channel.
Sky Digital Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcasting's digital satellite television and radio service
Sky Go Formerly known as Sky Player, Sky Anytime on PC and Sky By Broadband, Sky Go is an online television service from Sky which launched in January 2006. The service allows users to watch live and on demand video content from their Mac, Windows PC, mobile pho
Sky Player Sky's catch-up service
Sky+ Brand name for digital television recorder (DTR) service produced and marketed by Sky. It enables its users to pause, rewind and record live TV channels.
Skyscraper A 120 x 600 ad position that usually appears on the right-hand (or sometimes left-hand) side of the website.
Slingbox Connects to a user's home set-top box and broadband network, and enables them to view their TV services on a mobile device when connected to the Internet, using software called the SlingPlayer.
Slot A commercial break within one or between two programmes, containing several advertisements.
SMA TV/Satellite Master Antennae TV Set A SMATV or satellite master antennae TV set is a set receiving a TV signal by wire from a communal satellite dish on a multi-occupancy building.
Smart TV see Connected TV
Smartcard Credit card-sized electronic key put in a decoder to unscramble a protected channel.
SMATV Satellite Master Antenna Television - Relatively small cable systems, often serving a single block of flats for example, built to deliver a range of satellite television channels to the homes connected to them.
SMCS Short Message Service Centre. A network switch for routing SMS traffic.
SMM Social Media Marketing
SMM Social media marketing
SMO Social media optimisation
SMPP Short Message Peer to peer Protocol used for exchanging SMS messages.
SMS Short Message Service (SMS) is a service available on most digital mobile phones (and other mobile devices, e.g. a Pocket PC, or occasionally even desktop computers) that permits the sending of short messages (also known as text messages, or more colloquially SMSes, texts or even txts) between mobile phones, other handheld devices and even landline telephones. Other uses of text messaging can be for ordering ringtones, wallpapers and entering competitions. There are also many services available on the Internet that allow users to send text messages for free.
SNG (Satellite News-Gathering) Use of satellite TV technology to send news material from portable uplink stations.
Sniffer Software Which identifies the capabilities of the user's browser and therefore can determine compatibility with ad formats and serve them an advert they will be able to see/fully interact with (eg: GIF, Flash etc).
Social Class Classification of social status, usually based on the occupation of the head of household.
Social Grade A Upper Middle Class - Higher managerial, administrative or professional.
Social Grade B Middle Class - Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional.
Social Grade C1 Lower Middle - Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional.
Social Grade C2 Skilled Working - Skilled manual workers.
Social Grade D Working Class - Semi and unskilled manual workers.
Social Grade E Those at lowest levels of subsistence - State pensioners or widows (no other earner), subsistence casual or lowest grade workers.
Social Grade Explanation The Social Grade counts provided represent the Social Grade of the “Household Reference Person” (HRP), and is only provided when the HRP is between 16 and 74. Therefore, any household where the HRP falls outside this range will be excluded which will explain the vast proportion of the discrepancy between the SG_TOT and H_HOLDS. Additionally, where the data was collected at low level geographies, some demographic detail may have been restricted
Social Grading Social Grading is the longest-standing classification system, familiar from almost every population survey, originally developed for the National Readership Survey.
Social Media We refer to social media, in a commercial sense, as: the creation of useful, valuable and relevant content and applications by brands, or by consumers with specific reference to brands, that can be shared online, facilitated by web 2.0 technology.
Social media Websites and applications used for social networking.
Social TV Social television is a general term for technology that supports communication and social interaction in either the context of watching television, or related to TV content.
Socio-Economic Data Indication of 'class' based on the occupation of the head of the household or chief income earner. The most common and authoritative use of the method is in the compilation of the National Readership Survey. Example: A Upper middle class B Middle class C1 Lower middle class C2 Skilled working class D Semi-skilled and unskilled working class E Those at the lowest levels of subsistence A description of this method of classification is contained in every copy of the NRS, and full details can be found in the JICNARS publication 'Social Grading on the National Readership Survey'.
Socio-Economic Groups Classification of social status, usually based on the occupation of the head of household.
Solus An advert not adjoined on any other side by other advertising display or classified
Solus Email Solus e-mail is a term used in the e-mail marketing industry. A solus e-mail would be a third-party advertisement that is sent to an opt-in subscription e-mail list that is comprised of demographics of target consumers that the third-party want to advertise to. The e-mail advertisement will generally not show any information about the website or company who owns the e-mail list, but will appear to come directly to you from the third-party brand. Solus e-mail marketing is also called direct e-mail marketing
Solus email advertising where the body of the email is determined by the advertiser, including both text and graphical elements, and is sent on their behalf by an email list manager/owner. Solus email advertising is conducted on an opt-in basis where the recipient has given the
SOV Share of voice
Spam Unwanted email that the user does not request.
Spamming The sending of unrequested mass email-shots. This practice has created a huge backlash from the net community which will typically see the sender bombarded (or flammed) with abusive email.
Sparklies Small white and black flashes on a satellite-delivered TV picture caused by too weak a received signal.
Special Positions A special position is a mono advert which does not appear run of paper.
Spider A programme which crawls the web and fetches web pages in order for them to be indexed against keywords. Used by search engines to formulate search result pages.
Splash Page A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a website that usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions. Splash pages are also known as supertitial and interstitial.
Split-Transmitter This term is used when an analogue radio station has multiple transmitters and chooses to play out different programming or ads on one or more of the transmitters.
Sponsored Search See PPC (Pay Per Click).
Sponsorship A form of promotion where a company associates itself of/and a product with a particular activity or event.
Sponsorship Research Research to aid the understanding of this communication method in the multi platform world.
Spontaneous Recall Ability of respondent to recall any details of any particular subject without prompting.
Spot An individual occurrence of a commercial.
Spot Colour These are additional colours printed on two a black and white background. These require an extra run through the press, but do not involve filtered colours.
Spot Length The length of time an individual spot plays for
Spot Plan Organisation of individual spots
Spot Rating Single half hour or quarter hour average audience expressed as a percentage of the population group measured: calculated by half or quarter hour average audience x 100 divided by reach.
Spot ratings Spot ratings are the estimated audiences for a specific commercial slot, expressed as a percentage of the total target market. They are used to buy and sell TV advertising.
Spread a shortened form of 'double page spread'.
Spread Traffic Spread Traffic is the percentage of a publication's readers who claimed to have read or looked at anything on a particular double page spread of that publication.
SS7 Signalling System 7. A worldwide standard for telecommunications hardware to talk to each other.
SSP Supply side platform
Staggercast (or shufflecast) Where output is identical on a digital channel as analogue channel but shown at a later time.
Stand Alone Computer Name given to any computer that is not part of a network and not connected to any other computers.
Standard Error A statistical measure of the amount by which a survey finding may differ from reality.
Standard Rates These are the single insertion ROP (run of paper) rates mono page, mono scc, full colour page and recruitment SCC.
Standby Time The amount of battery power time that a mobile phone has whilst not in use for conversation and left on to receive calls.
Stickiness The degree to which an Internet site can keep online users and encourage return visits.
Stratification If some important detail is known about the population which is being sampled, and this is associated with the variables that are to be measured, it is possible to increase the efficiency of the sample.
Stream A request made for a site's streamed content (e.g. live broadcasts) by a User of that site in the period being measured.
Streaming Streaming involves the ad starting to play as the remainder of the ad downloads in the background, in order to cut down on ad file sizes.
Streaming Audio/Video Compressed digital multimedia files either audio and/or video that are transmitted one-way over the Internet in real time.
Streaming Media A form of sponsorship linked to streamed video and audio content. Very effective branding, particularly amongst teenagers and kids and very effective when used for the advertisement of events.
Strikeweight The weight of advertising bought per week
Strip scheduling Programme timing technique employed by some television stations whereby the same (or very similar) programmes begin and end at the same time each day.
Sub-Categories, Sub-Demographic Groups This is the division of the main category audience or population (of individuals/adults/men/women/children/housewives), usually by age and social grade or other demographic or special interest group. The usual social grade breakdown is into the groups AB, C1, C2 and DE. These grades are determined at the household rather than the individual level, by the occupation of the head of the household or chief income earner. The grade is then assigned to all members of the household. The age divisions generally used are: 4-9 years, 10-15, 16-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55+. Housewives are often classified by the presence or absence of children in the household.
Subcarrier Auxiliary signal associated with a satellite TV signal used for carrying the audio soundtrack or additional radio stations.
Subscription TV System usually transmitted over the air but scrambled to stop non-subscribers viewing. A device attached to the TV set decodes the signal for subscribers.
Subscription Video On Demand A service offered by pay systems, which charges their subscribers a monthly fee for accessing unlimited programs. (wikipedia)
Subsited Traffic Pages which have been pushed into a User's browser, usually by a new window opening 'under' the page actually requested by the User.
Subsiting Entering into arrangement to have your site opened under another one, so generating subsited traffic.
Sugging Selling under the guise of research.
Superside Banner shaped bus-side poster site, most often situated on the nearside of the bus, to be seen by a pedestrian audience.
Supersite Poster site which is larger than a 96 sheet.
Supersize Banner A 728 x 90 banner ad.
Superstitials A form of rich media advertising which allows a TV-like experience on the web. It is fully pre-cached before playing
Surfing The process of moving between Internet web pages/sites by clicking on links to go from one page to the next.
Survey Population The number of people in the survey Universe, sub-universe or Target Group.
Survey Sample Those respondents identified as being eligible to be interviewed or questioned for a survey.
Survey Universe The number of people in the survey Universe. Often used interchangeably with Population, which is the number of people in the universe.
SVOD An on demand service offered by pay systems, which charges their subscribers a periodic fee for accessing content.
Syndication The packaging of a radio or TV programme for sale to individual stations.
T-Commerce Electronic commerce on interactive television.
T1 Line Connection A high-speed phone line composed of fibre optic cabling used by companies to access the Internet.
Tablet A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a mobile computer with display, circuitry and battery in a single unit. Tablets are equipped with sensors, including cameras, microphone, accelerometer and touchscreen, with finger or stylus gestures replacing compu
Tabloid Newspaper format which is approximately 34cms deep by 26cms wide.
Tagging Traffic measurement using browser-side methods such as additional tracking code which runs when a page is rendered, rather than server-side methods such as log files. This method is often used to overcome caching issues with measurement.
Talk Time This is the period of time that a mobile phone can transmit using a single battery charge.
Target (Universe/Audience) The people or market that the campaign is designed to reach.
Target Audience Generally used interchangeably with Target Market or Group. However, Target Audience is sometimes used to mean the nearest meaningful approximation to the Target Market or Group specified in the creative brief.
Target Group Generally used interchangeably with Target Market or Group. However Target Audience is sometimes used to mean the nearest meaningful approximation to the Target Market or Group specified in the creative brief.
Target Market A campaign's primary target defined either in terms of lifestyle or by standard demographics - age, sex and class.
Target Ratings Total number of ratings that a time-buyer aims to achieve by area in a given time.
Targeted Advertising The web allows adverts to be targeted primarily in three ways. 1 By web publication - which allows advertisers to target campaigns based on the simple level of the known demographics of a publication. 2 The choice of content within a web publication. This is particularly important in large online publications such as Electronic Telegraph, which may contain pockets of content targeted at certain groups - for example medical news pages being read by doctors and consumers interested in health issues. 3 Dynamically targeted adverts which deliver different adverts to different groups of readers while they are reading the same page. New software which is being adopted in 1997 by some of the main UK new media publishers is opening up the direct marketing potential of the web. There are two types of dynamic targeting. The first, and simplest, allows adverts to be targeted from information which is carried to the website by the users browser. Typically this will include the type of browser and computer, a generalised statement of what country they are reading from (unfortunately this is based on domain names and often fails) and information about which websites they have visited. The second method is only open to sites like the Telegraphs Electronic Telegraph which have a registered base of users for which they know certain characteristics. In theory an advert could be targeted based on any of the data captured in the questionnaire such as age, gender, occupation.
Targeted Advertising Addressable or Targetted Advertising is a type of advertising whereby advertisements are placed so as to reach consumers based on various traits such as demographics, purchase history, or observed behavior.
TARPs Target Audience Rating Points. A term used in audience research for assessing the audience to a commercial. If a TV commercial is watched by 10% of the target audience it achieves 10 TARPs. When all the TARPs for individual commercials are added up, they become Gross Rating Points (GRPs).
Tear sheet Cutting from a magazine or newspaper which is sent to the advertiser as proof that the ad. has appeared or that colour reproduction is of the required standard.
Teaser Single advertisement or advertising campaign aimed at arousing interest and curiosity.
Telemarketing Use of telephone as a medium to sell, promote or take orders for goods and/or services. The expressions 'inbound' and 'outbound' are often applied to distinguish between selling and order-taking.
Telephone Interview When the respondent is interviewed by telephone either for the main interview or at the Screening stage of a survey.
Telephone Screening When eligible units (usually people or addresses) within the Sampling Frame are identified by telephone.
Telescoping Telescoping occurs when a respondent overclaims behaviour or events, I.e. they believe they have seen/read/heard/done something more recently that is in fact the case.
Teletext The reception of broadcast textual information on a specially adapted TV set. Transmission occurs in the vertical blanking interval of the normal over-the-air signal. Includes Ceefax and Teletext UK in Britain.
Television Rating Points/TVRs Television Ratings are the percentage of the potential TV audience who are viewing at a given time. TV ratings (TVRs) can apply to any time period, such as one minute, a quarter hour, an individual commercial, a commercial break or a programme.
Teleworkers Workers that operate from home, communicating with the office via telephone and the Internet.
Telnet An Internet protocol that allows you to log in to other computer systems on the Net.
Tenancy The 'renting' out of a section of a website by another brand who pays commission to this media owner for any revenue generated from this space. EG: dating services inside portals or bookstores inside online newspapers
Terrestrial Viewing Terrestrial viewing as defined to any of the following channels: BBC1, BBC2, ITV (including GMTV), Channel 4 (including S4C) and Channel 5.
Text Ad A static appended text attached to an advertisement.
Text Link Creative use for mobile advertisements – represented by highlighted and clickable text(s) with a link embedded within the highlighted text. Usually limited to 16-24 characters.
Text per thousand viewers Text per thousand viewers is a metric created by MediaTel's Connected Consumer which is a calculation of the number of tweets related to a Television programmes broadcast transmission, divided by the number of viewers from the BARB overnights figures
TGI Target Group Index. Product/media survey produced by British Market Research Bureau (BMRB). Syndicated amongst media owners, agencies and advertisers, and covering over 5000 brands.
Thinkbox The television marketing body for all the UK commercial broadcasters : Channel 4, five, GMTV, ITV, Sky Media, Turner Broadcasting and Viacom Brand Solutions. It works with the UK marketing community with a single ambition - to help customers get the best out of television.
Third-Party Ad Server Some independent companies specialise in managing, running, serving, tracking, and analysing the results of online ad campaigns - this is third party ad tracking.
Threshold (TV) Measure of the sensitivity of a satellite receiver; the lower the more sensitive
Through The Book Methodology that establishes readership levels by showing the respondent copies of a specific issue of each title and asking him or her whether or not they have read or looked at that particular issue.
TIFF Tagged Image File Format: TIFF is a popular format for high colour depth images, along with JPEG and PNG. TIFF format is widely supported by image-manipulation applications such as Adobe Photoshop, GIMP, Ulead PhotoImpact, Corel Photo-Paint and Paint Shop Pro, by desktop publishing and page layout applications such as QuarkXPress and Adobe InDesign, by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical character recognition and other applications.
Time Shift / Timeshift Time-shift viewing is the recorded viewing of programmes or recordings on video and viewed in real time (i.e. not fast forwarded,) within a week of transmission.
Time Shift Audience / Timeshift Audience For a particular broadcast, the timeshift audience is the cumulative audience who view that particular broadcast as video playback within seven days of transmission.
Time-Related Filter In readership research, a filter question referring to a specific time period stated (e.g. for NRS the filter is "reading or looking at a publication within the last 12 months".
Tints Where a flat area of colour is required, this is normally produced by the reproduction house using tints. A tint is not solid ink but made up from dots of the three process colours - yellow, magenta and cyan (black can also be used). The solid colours are screened in percentages, usually in increments of ten per cent and each colour is combined with one, or both, of the other colours. In practice, this yields 1,100 combinations and another 300 can be achieved if black is incorporated. The tint required is selected from a tint chart, which can be obtained from the reproduction house or printer. The client specifies the colour in percentages of yellow, magenta, cyan and black in this order, for example 90Y + 30M + 10B.
Tip-ons Item, leaflet, postcard, sachet, stickers etc glued to ad page.
Tiscali Now owned by TalkTalk - was an IPTV platform that provides access to a mix of linear digital TV channels, as well as a selection of on-demand programming.
Tiscali TV IPTV platform that provides access to a mix of linear digital TV channels, as well as a selection of on-demand programming.
Title Confusion This occurs when respondents mistake one title for another. They might confuse, for instance, two titles with similar-sounding names or two titles with similar-looking mastheads.
Title Rotation A change in the order of presentation of publications over the sample of interviews. Rotations may be applicable to titles within publication groups.
TiVo US device manufacturer that makes advanced digital television recorders. It was the first provider to sell DTRs in the UK before the launch of Sky+.
Top Up TV Top Up TV is a subscription digital TV service. It provides access to the full range of Freeview channels, as well as a selection of on-demand content from digital channels.
Total Hours (Radio) Total amount of time spent listening to a given station by all individuals who listen to it in an average week.
Total Hours of Listening/Viewing Total amount of time spent listening to the radio/watching television or a given radio/TV station by all individuals who watch/listen to it in, for example, an average week.
Total Internet Users The total number of people who have accessed the internet during a particular period. This can be just the once or on a more frequent basis.
Total Survey Area (TSA) (Radio) The area within which research is to be conducted for a particular station or service.
Touch Screen Computer monitors that respond to either heat or pressure generated for example by a finger.
TouchPoints The IPA TouchPoints survey aims to shed new light on how consumers are spending their time in today's multi-media world. It offers a week in the life picture on both consumer and media behaviour and is set to become a new industry standard for planning of advertising budgets. TouchPoints 1 launched in 2006, TouchPoints 2 in 2008.
TPM Tweets per minute
TPT Text per thousand viewers is a metric created by MediaTel's Connected Consumer which is a calculation of the number of tweets related to a Television programmes broadcast transmission, divided by the number of viewers from the BARB overnights figures
TRAC Tube Research and Audience Classification - TRAC. Audience data for the London Underground is taken from CBS Outdoor's TRAC survey, which has been integrated into the main Postar study in 2005. It was designed in 1985 by Martin Daniels of, Campbell Daniels Marketing Research Ltd.
Tracking Tracking studies monitor the extent to which a variable is changing over time.
Trading Desk A trading desk is a collection of human, organisational and technological means implemented to optmize digital advertisers’ budgets mainly through real time bidding and ad exchanges. It’s a service dedicated to help advertisers and agencies buying online
Traffic The volume of users, impressions, hits and visits a website gets.
Traffic Count Counting the movement of people or vehicles past a given point.
Traffic System The system used by the stations in order to schedule the spots based on the spot plan
Transcoder Device to translate from one TV format to another - e.g. Secam-PAL
Transitional Ad An ad that is displayed between web pages. The user sees the ad as they navigate between pages. Also known as an interstitial.
Transitional Pop-Up An ad that pops up in a separate ad window between content pages.
Transmission Logs Transmission logs are records (usually electronic) of exactly what was transmitted on television.
Transmitter The location where the broadcast is made for a station, stations may have one or in many cases multiple transmitters to broadcast the output
Transponder Equipment inside a satellite responsible for receiving a single uplinked channel and rebroadcasting it back to earth.
Transportable A high-powered portable phone that can be used on the fringes of a networks' coverage. These are often used in remote areas.
Tree And Branch Distribution system in which the final distribution to subscribers is made by running a distribution cable along a street and tapping off each subscriber's cable at intervals along the cable adjacent to the subscriber's premises.
Trim size Size of a magazine or newspaper after its pages have been printed and trimmed.
TRP Television Research Partnership. Provider of analysis, reporting and consultancy in the field of media measurement.
TSA Total Survey Area. The area within which a station's audience is measured. This is defined by the station using postcode districts as building blocks.
TTM (Through the Middle) TTM (Through the middle) is a term coined by Virgin to explain an area of dedicated bandwidth spectrum that Virgin Media is dedicating to managed Internet video, which sits between the managed linear TV and VOD services on the one hand, and the open and unmanaged Internet, made available via its DOCSIS broadband, on the other. By dedicating 10Mbps of bandwidth to Internet video services, the company can guarantee that even streamed HD Internet video does not impact other broadband services in the home (including unmanaged OTT video).
TV Ratings For Homes If a multi-set home has one set tuned to ITV and another to BBC1, it is counted both in the ITV and BBC TV ratings, but only once in the all channels homes TV ratings. If a multi-set home has two sets tuned to ITV, then it is counted only once in the ITV TV ratings and once in the all channels homes TV ratings.
TV Ratings For Individuals For a given category of individuals (e.g. men, women or children), this is the number of individuals viewing, expressed as a percentage of all such individuals, provision being made for guests. Children under the age of 4 are excluded.
TVCR The name given to a television set with a built-in video recorder.
TVR Television Ratings - The TVR is the currency of the television industry, and measures the popularity of a programme, daypart or commercial break or advertisement, by comparing its audience to the population as a whole. For example, if Coronation Street achieved a Housewife TVR of 30 in Yorkshire, this means that 30% of all Housewives in the Yorkshire region watched an average minute of Coronation Street - while the other 70% either watched another channel or were not watching television at all. TVRs are calculated for each minute for all channels. Programmes, dayparts and commercial breaks, all of which are longer than one minute, take their TVRs from the average of the relevant minute TVRs. A commercial, usually shorter than a minute is assigned the TVR of the minute in which it started, unless it is weighted. Commercial campaigns are frequently assessed by totalling the TVRs of their individual spots (even though TVRs are percentages in origin).
Tweet To make a posting on the social networking service Twitter.
Two screen Two screens
type over enter text
U Certificate Universal, suitable for all ages.
UCR Under-colour removal - This technique is used particularly when the printing is to be by web-offset. Where a subject has a dark area, the four-colour process will normally reproduce this using large dots of all four colours, whereas an identical effect can be achieved using only one or two colours. When heavy dots of all four colours overprint each other, there are drying and other problems, and more ink is used than is necessary. To avoid this situation, the scanner can be set to remove most or all of the magenta and yellow in the dark areas, leaving mainly black, sometimes with some cyan to improve the density. The printer should inform the repro house of under-colour removal requirements before reproduction work starts.
UDP User Datagram Protocol. A simple protocol that enables an application program on one machine to send a datagram to an application program on another machine.
UGC User Generated Content - Online content created by website users rather than media owners or publishers - either through reviews, blogging, podcasting or posting comments, pictures or video clips. Sites that encourage user generated content include MySpace, YouTube, Wikipedia and Flickr.
UHF (Ultra High Frequency) Ultra High Frequency 300mHz+ which includes Bands IV (470-582mHz) and V (614-854mHz) in which all UK terrestrial television broadcasting takes place.
UKOM UK Online Measurement company, set up to develop an online measurement system and funded by the AOP and the IAB.
UKOM APS UKOM APS is a media industry measurement of UK consumers’ online activity, specified by UKOM Ltd and delivered by Nielsen
UltraViolet UltraViolet (UV) is a digital rights authentication and cloud-based distribution system that allows consumers of digital home entertainment content to stream and download purchased content via multiple platforms and devices. With respect to both physical packaged media and digital media, UltraViolet adheres to a 'buy once, play anywhere' approach that allows users to store digital proof-of-purchases under one account to enable playback of content that is platform- and point-of-sale-agnostic.
UMTS Universal Mobile Telephony Service or ‘3G’ offers comprehensive voice and multimedia services to mobile customers by providing very high data rates and new functionality such as data streaming. 3G phones are backward compatible and can access all the ser
Underclaim When respondents claim to not own, purchase, fly more frequently, earn more, to have read a publication, have seen an advertisement which they have actually do or have done.
Unduplicated Net Readership The part of the readership of a publication (or schedule of publications) which does not overlap with another specified publication (or other publications within the schedule).
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) refers to the format used by World-Wide Web documents to locate other files, effectively the 'address' for a Web site.
Unique Audience In internet research, the un-duplicated audience to a website.
Unique Browser A unique and valid identifier. Sites may use IP+User-Agent and/or Cookie.
Unique Browser Duration The total time in seconds for all Visits of two or more Page Impressions, divided by the number of Unique Browsers making such Visits.
Unique cover Pertaining to audience coverage which is achieved by using specific media or advertising units (commonly TV spots) only. The omission of the specified units would result in a fall in net coverage, so their contribution to coverage-building is 'unique'.
Unique Host The total number of unique IP addresses that have made requests for content to the site in the period being measured.
Unique RSS User A Unique User who has made requests for RSS feeds. Must be measured by cookie.
Unique User Duration The average time of all visits (of more than one Page Impression) per Unique User made in the period being measured.
Unique Users The number of different people that visit a website. In an ABCe audit a user is an individual IP address, registration ID, cookie or other identifier which distinguishes different users visiting the sites.
Unique Visitors In internet research, the un-duplicated number of individuals who have visited a website at least once during a specified time period.
Unique Web Feed Browser A valid Unique Browser (measured by Cookie) that has requested a web feed from the source site.
Universal Advertising Package A set of online advertising formats that are standardised placements as defined the by the IAB. See also banner, skyscraper, button, MPU and embedded formats
Universal player Is a platform agnostic media player that will allow video and audio to be played on any hardware / software configuration from a single source file.
Universal Remote Control A remote control unit that is able to control more than one brand of Television, video recorder or set top box etc.
Universe Collection of people whose total number represents the ultimate potential reach of a piece of activity (advertising, research, etc) eg 'All housewives in the South East'.
Universe Reach (Internet) The number of unique persons visiting a website and/or using an application one or more times, expressed as a percentage of the total current internet population for the specific reporting period.
UNIX An operating system commonly used across the Internet.
Unsubscribe The act of resigning yourself from a Usenet newsgroup, or more commonly known an Internet mailing list.
Unweighted Base The Unweighted Base (in a research survey) refers to the number of individuals, households etc. that were interviewed, either in total or by demographic sub-group.
Unweighted Sample Those survey respondents who are successfully interviewed or who returned usable questionnaires (I.e. the Analysis Sample) before sample weights have been applied.
Upgrade An old cable system installed for broadcast relay purposes but now utilised for the provision of new programme services.
Uplink The transmission from an earth station to satellite.
UPS Abbreviation of Uninterruptible Power Supply. A device that provides battery back-up supply and protects against power surges. Computer owners often use these.
Upstream The direction of signals transmitted from a cable subscriber to the operator's headend.
URL Uniform Resource Locator - a site's address which is entered to access that site. eg http://www.mediatel.co.uk/
USENET A group of systems that exchange debate, chat, etc in the form of newsgroup across the net. See News
User Generated Content Online content created by website users rather than media owners or publishers - either through reviews, blogging, podcasting or posting comments, pictures or video clips. Sites that encourage user generated content include MySpace, YouTube, Wikipedia and Flickr.
User generated content (UGC) Online content created by website users rather than media owners or publishers either through reviews, blogging, podcasting or posting comments, pictures or video clips. Sites that encourage user generated content include MySpace, YouTube, Wikipedia and
User Session A user session is normally defined by someone with a unique address that enters or re-enters a website each day (or some other specified period). A user session is sometimes determined by counting only those users that haven't re-entered the site within the past 20 minutes or in a similar period. User session figures are sometimes used, somewhat incorrectly, to indicate visits or visitors per day. User sessions are a better indicator of total site activity than unique visitors since they indicate frequency of use.
User-Centric Measurement In internet research, the measurement of website audiences through sample-based panels of respondents, whose online activities are monitored by specialist research providers.
User-Initiated Logged Event Any logged event that can be attributed to a particular Unique Browser.
Username The name chosen by a user of an on-line system, the same as an account name, or user id.
Users (Internet) The total number of people that visit a website.
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time. An international standard time reference, formerly called Greenwich Mean Time.
UUNET PIPEX One of the major suppliers of Internet connections to the corporate sector in the UK. http://www.uunet.pipex.com/
VAC A visibility adjusted contact or VAC is the audience rating for an advertising panel. It is not a measure of quality but simply one of the scale of the audience. As such it is comparable to a television or radio spot rating.
VAI Visibility Adjusted Impacts: the amount of people who view a poster site. VAIs use computer experiments to measure eye movement when passing a site and are calculated by measuring this information against the gross number of people who pass the site. The better the panel, the closer the VAI to the gross.
Validation The validation of audience or readership claims obtained by one method via another thought to be more accurate (but which may only be viable in specific conditions).
Van Westendorf Van Westendorf is a powerful technique used in pricing research.
VCR Videocassette recorder.
Vertical publications Publications in which editorial content covers a specific industry, e.g. Engineering magazine.
VFD Verified Free Distribution is an accepted industry standard for certifying the validity of net free distribution of newspapers, magazines or directories that are hand delivered to separate households and business addresses within a defined geographical area. No multiple copies, or intermittent deliveries are included.
VHF Very High Frequency 30-300mHz+ including Band 1 (41-68mHz) and Band 111 (174-216mHz) used in the UK until early 1985 for 405-line black and white television. Band 11 (88-108mHz) is used for VHF/FM stereo-sound services.
Video Conferencing Sound and video links that allow people in different locations to engage in a virtual meeting.
Video On Demand Short for Video-on-Demand, an umbrella term for a wide set of technologies and companies whose common goal is to enable individuals to select videos from a central server for viewing on a television or computer screen. VoD can be used for entertainment (ordering movies transmitted digitally), education (viewing training videos), and videoconferencing (enhancing presentations with video clips).
Video On Demand (VOD) Allows users to watch what they want, when they want. This can be either ‘pay per view’ or a free service usually funded by advertising.
Videocrypt Smartcard -operated encryption system first used by Sky subscription channels.
Videotex Generic term for broadcast, textual or graphic information, via television receivers and includes both teletext and viewdata systems.
Viewdata Interactive communications service between a TV set and a central computer. May operate via cable or telephone lines. In the UK, Prestel is the trade name for British Telecom's public viewdata system.
Viewers Per Set Average number of individuals 'present in the room' (as defined by BARB) when the 'set' is switched on.
Viewing A panel member (or guest) is defined to be viewing when they are present in a room with a TV set switched on.
Viral Marketing The term "viral advertising" refers to the idea that people will pass on and share striking and entertaining content; this is often sponsored by a brand, which is looking to build awareness of a product or service. These viral commercials often take the form of funny video clips, or interactive Flash games, images, and even text.
Virgin Media Virgin Media Inc. is a provider of television, telephone and broadband internet services to domestic and business customers in the UK, delivered primarily through its fibre-optic cable network
Virgin V+ Virgin Media's digital television recorder (DTR). It provides the user with up to 80 hours recording capability, alongside all of the standard linear content and channels, and the wide selection of on-demand programming available through the Virgin Media subscription
Virus A programme that is passed from one computer to another via infected files.
Visibility Adjusted Impact (VAI) The amount of people who view a poster site.
Visit A request made for a page on a website which is more commonly known as a user session. It includes all activity for one user of a website. By default, a user session is terminated when a user is inactive for more than 30 minutes.
Visit Duration The average time of each visit (of more than one Page Impression) in the period being measured.
Visual Clutter (Outdoor) A poster against a background of trees has less distractions than a poster in a busy high street, and existing experimental evidence suggests that this can be at least as important as whether the poster is solus or shares the site with other panels (which is another aspect of clutter).
Vlog A vlog is a video which uses a blog as its method of distribution. Regular entries are made and presented in reverse chronological order. A typical vlog entry combines an embedded video or video link with supporting text, images, and metadata. Vlogs often take advantage of web syndication. Web syndication allows the distribution of video over the Internet using either the RSS or Atom syndication formats, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers.
VM Viral marketing
VMNO Virtual Mobile Network Operator. A company that uses the infrastructure of an existing (licence owning) telecoms network operator. Tesco and Virgin are two of the largest VMNOs in the UK.
VOD Short for Video-on-Demand, an umbrella term for a wide set of technologies and companies whose common goal is to enable individuals to select videos from a central server for viewing on a television or computer screen. VoD can be used for entertainment (ordering movies transmitted digitally), education (viewing training videos), and videoconferencing (enhancing presentations with video clips).
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) Technology that allows the use of a broadband Internet connection to make telephone calls.
VoIP Stands for "Voice Over Internet Protocol," and is often pronounced "voip." VoIP is basically a telephone connection over the Internet. The data is sent digitally, using the Internet Protocol (IP) instead of analogue telephone lines. This allows people to talk to one another long-distance and around the world without having to pay long distance or international phone charges. VoIP is also referred to as IP telephony, Internet telephony, and digital phone.
Voltage-Switched LNB Combined LNB/polariser used on Astra systems with polarity selected by changing the voltage.
VOSDAL Viewing-On-Same-Day-As-Live. Time-shifted viewing that has been viewed on the same day as the original broadcast is included in overnight viewing which is released at 9.30am the following day (see Overnights).
VRML Short for Virtual Reality Modelling Language, VRML pronounced ("Ver-mul") is the navigation specification behind 3-D objects and environments on the Web. HTML creates 2-D environments. 3-D VRML worlds are used to host things like chatting and gaming, where users represent themselves using avatars, which crawl, hop, or crunch (depending on the avatar). To view VRML files, which have the wrl suffix (short for world), you need to add the proper plug-in to your browser.
Walled Garden On the Internet this refers to a browsing environment that controls which Web sites a user can access.
WAN Abbreviation of Wide Area Network. A computer network that covers a wide geographical area.
WAP Wireless Application Protocol - Standard for providing mobile data services on hand-held devices.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Standard for providing mobile data services on hand held devices. Brings Internet content such as news, weather, travel, etc to mobile phones and can also be used to deliver formatted content such as wallpapers, ringtones, video, games, portals and other
WAP Impression The total number of requests made for a site's WAP content by Users of that site in the period being measured.
WAPI Abbreviation of Web Aided Personal Interviewing.
Wastage The proportion of an ad. campaign's expenditure or advertising weight which is not seen or heard by the specified target audience.
Wave machine Type of poster site in which the whole display is changed at regular short intervals (eg every ten seconds) by rotation of (usually vertical) slats, to which different advertisements (usually for different products) are applied.
Web (Printing) Printing from a continuous length of paper (i.e. a roll or reels).
Web 2.0 The term Web 2.0 - with its knowing nod to upgraded computer applications - describes the next generation of online use. Web 2.0 identifies the consumer as a major contributor in the evolution of the internet into a two-way medium. See also user generated content
Web 3.0 Web 3.0 is a term used to describe the future of the World wide Web.
Web Analytics Web Analytics is the study of the behaviour of website visitors.
Web based Requiring no software to access an online service or function, other than a Web browser and access to the Internet.
Web Based Discussions Also known as newsgroups or communities of forums. Internet based bulletin boards that allow people to post comments about specific topics.
Web Enabled This refers to the facility on digital handsets such as PDAs and mobile phones that allows users to access the Internet using these devices.
Web Feed Referral In The first Page Impression served to a valid User as a result of that User's click on a link in a web feed.
Web Page Represents a single location on the Web, designated by an internet address (URL)
Web portal A website or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as email, forums, search engines, and online shopping malls.
Web Site A collection of hyper-linked web pages at one domain name.
Webisode Similar to a mobisode, a webisode is refers to programming that has been specifically scripted and shot for playout over the Internet, and viewed on a PC screen.
Website Traffic The amount of visitors or visits a website receives.
Webvertising Another new buzzword for online marketers. Simply web advertising.
Weekly Reach Weekly Reach is the estimated number of people who viewed a particular television channel in an average day/week, or whoever listened to a particular radio station in an average day/week.
Weight (Media) Value given to a section of the population based on actual or probable product consumption/purchase, when assessing media vehicles.
Weighted Sample A sample to which all the necessary Sample Weights have been applied.
Weighting (TV) The requirement to weight TVRs and impacts stems from the fact that these data are calculated at the minute level and not at the more detailed level of individual seconds. Each commercial length is assigned a different weighting. The 30 second commercial, as the most popular and 'middle' length commercial, is given a weighting of 1.00, i.e. it is assigned the actual TVR and number of impacts of the minute within which it started. Commercials of other durations are weighted accordingly, those shorter than 30 seconds receiving a weighting of less than 1.00 while those longer than 30 seconds receive a weighting of more than 1.00. the actual weight is decided by the type of weighting. 'Duration' weights take into account just the length of an advertisement - for example, a 10 second commercial lasts a third as long as a 30 second and is given a weighting of 0.33. ' Expenditure or 30 second ratecard equivalent weighting is calculated by referring to regional ratecard costs of differing commercial lengths. For example, a 10 second commercial usually costs half as much as a 30 second commercial, so the 10 second will be given a weighting of 0.5.
Weighting Matrix Cell weighting is the traditional form of sample weighting and involves target variables (e.g. sex, age and region) being interlaced to form a matrix of target cells in the population.
Where Listened The location of the respondent when listening (I.e. work, car, home)
Whiteboard A video conferencing device that allows users in different location to draw on a shared virtual surface.
Whitelist An e-mail whitelist is a list of contacts that the user deems are acceptable to receive email from and should not be sent to the trash folder.
Wi-Fi Short for "Wireless Fidelity." (derived from "Hi-Fi," or High Fidelity, which refers to high-quality audio or surround sound.) Wi-Fi refers to wireless network components that are based on one of the Wi-Fi Alliance's 802.11 standards. The Wi-Fi Alliance created the 802.11 standard so that manufacturers can make wireless products that work with other manufacturers' equipment. So, if you have a "Wi-Fi Certified" wireless network card, it should be recognised by any "Wi-Fi Certified" access point, and vice-versa.
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) The ability to connect to the internet wirelessly. Internet ‘hotspots’ in coffee shops and airports.etc use this technology.
Wideband Cable system with the capacity to carry a large number (e.g. 25 or more) TV channels. Interchangeable with broadband.
Widescreen TV or signal with a wider picture of 16:9 aspect ratio instead of the conventional 4:3.
Widget A web widget is a portable chunk of code that can be installed and executed within any separate HTML-based web page by an end user without requiring additional compilation.
wifi A facility allowing computers, smartphones, or other devices to connect to the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area.
Wii/Wii U Video game consoles with multi-media capabilities manufactured by Nintendo. Released in 2006 and 2012, respectively.
Wiki A wiki is a type of website that allows the visitors themselves to easily add, remove, and otherwise edit and change some available content, sometimes without the need for registration.
Wilfing (What Was I Looking For) 7 in 10 of Britain's 34 million users forget what they are looking for online at work and at home. Wilfing is an expression referring to browsing the internet with no real purpose.
WiMAX WiMAX is the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access.
Wireless Markup Language (WML) aka WAP 1.0 Where the mobile internet started many years ago. Hardly supported any more.
Wireless Multimedia Adapter A device to transfer files from a computer to a televison across a wireless network, for example Apple TV.
WOMM Word of mouth marketing
Word of Mouth Ipsos MediaCT have a proprietary product which measures the multiplier effect of the Word of Mouth communication on sales.
World Wide Web (WWW) WWW consists of graphic and text documents published on the Internet that are interconnected through clickable "hypertext" links.
Worldwide Readership Research Symposia A bi-annual conference run jointly by Ipsos MediaCT and the KMR Group to foster the spreading of best practice in readership research.
WRE Wrong Reading Emulsion - term used to describe way film is produced by printers, which is then sent to advertisers
WRRS Abbreviation of Worldwide Readership Research Symposia.
WWW World Wide Web - the graphical and most user friendly part of the internet.
Xbox A series of video game consoles with multi-media capabilities manufactured by Microsoft
XML The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose specification for creating custom markup languages.
Yahoo An internet search engine (a searchable subject-based catalogue of the Net.) http://www.yahoo.com/
Yellow Pages (Internet) An on-line database of machine names and address which form part of the InterNic service. Also a well liked Internet resource directory that mimics a telephone directory in style.
YouTube A video-sharing website owned by Google.
YouView Youview is an open, internet-connected television platform in the UK, launched in July 2012. The venture is a partnership between four broadcasters (BBC, Channel 4, Channel 5 and ITV plc) and three communications companies (Arqiva, BT and TalkTalk). The platform, previously knows as Project Canvas, allows consumers access to a range of third-party services (tv, radio, on-demand services and internet content) using a compliant device (such as a set-top box) built to a common technical standard and through a broadband internet connection.
Z-test A statistical way of undertaking tests of significance of survey results.
Zapping Zapping includes: a) the rapid change across channels made by viewers during a commercial break, b) the exclusion of commercials when recordings are made of programmes.
Zipping Zipping is fast-forwarding through recorded commercials when watching a home-recorded tape.